ACE2 | GeneID:59272 | Homo sapiens

Gene Summary

[ - ] NCBI Entrez Gene

Gene ID 59272 Official Symbol ACE2
Locus N/A Gene Type protein-coding
Synonyms ACEH; DKFZp434A014
Full Name angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 2
Description angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 2
Chromosome Xp22
Also Known As ACE-related carboxypeptidase; OTTHUMP00000022963; angiotensin I converting enzyme 2; angiotensin converting enzyme-like protein
Summary The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the angiotensin-converting enzyme family of dipeptidyl carboxydipeptidases and has considerable homology to human angiotensin 1 converting enzyme. This secreted protein catalyzes the cleavage of angiotensin I into angiotensin 1-9, and angiotensin II into the vasodilator angiotensin 1-7. The organ- and cell-specific expression of this gene suggests that it may play a role in the regulation of cardiovascular and renal function, as well as fertility. In addition, the encoded protein is a functional receptor for the spike glycoprotein of the human coronaviruses SARS and HCoV-NL63. [provided by RefSeq]

Orthologs and Paralogs

[ - ] Homologs - NCBI's HomoloGene Group: 41448

ID Symbol Protein Species
GeneID:59272 ACE2 NP_068576.1 Homo sapiens
GeneID:70008 Ace2 NP_081562.2 Mus musculus
GeneID:180780 acn-1 NP_001024453.1 Caenorhabditis elegans
GeneID:302668 Ace2 NP_001012006.1 Rattus norvegicus
GeneID:418623 ACE2 XP_416822.2 Gallus gallus
GeneID:480847 ACE2 XP_537964.2 Canis lupus familiaris
GeneID:492331 ace2 NP_001007298.1 Danio rerio


[ - ] Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies

No. Provider Product No. Description
1 abcam ab38888 Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 antibody - Catalytic domain (ab38888); Rabbit polyclonal to Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 - Catalytic domain
2 abcam ab38889 Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 antibody - Cytoplasmic domain (ab38889); Rabbit polyclonal to Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 - Cytoplasmic domain
3 abcam ab15350 Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 antibody (ab15350); Rabbit polyclonal to Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2
4 abcam ab20441 Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 antibody (ab20441); Rabbit polyclonal to Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2
5 abcam ab15347 Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 antibody (ab15347); Rabbit polyclonal to Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2
6 abcam ab15348 Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 antibody (ab15348); Rabbit polyclonal to Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2
7 abcam ab15349 Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 antibody (ab15349); Rabbit polyclonal to Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2
8 abcam ab59351 Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 antibody (ab59351); Rabbit polyclonal to Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2
9 abcam ab38941 Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 antibody - Carboxyterminal end catalytic domain (ab38941); Rabbit polyclonal to Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 - Carboxyterminal end catalytic domain
10 abgent AP6020e ACE2 (SARS Receptor) Antibody (C-term); Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab)
11 abgent AP6020b ACE2 (SARS Receptor) Antibody (N-term); Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab)
12 abgent AP6020a ACE2 (SARS Receptor) Antibody (N-term); Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab)
13 abgent AP6020g ACE2 Antibody (N-term K187); Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab)
14 abgent AP6020d ACE2 (SARS Receptor) Antibody (Center); Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab)
15 abgent AP6020f ACE2 (SARS Receptor) Antibody (C-term); Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab)
16 abgent AP6020c ACE2 (SARS Receptor) Antibody (Center); Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab)
17 acris AP13063PU-N ACE2 (N-term); antibody Ab
18 acris AP13059PU-N ACE2 (Center); antibody Ab
19 acris AP13061PU-N ACE2 (C-term); antibody Ab
20 acris AP07652PU-N ACE2; antibody Ab
21 acris BP2276 ACE2 (N-term); antibody Ab
22 acris AP13060PU-N ACE2 (Center); antibody Ab
23 acris BP2277 ACE2 (C-term); antibody Ab
24 acris AP05885PU-N ACE2; antibody Ab
25 acris BP2278 ACE2; antibody Ab
26 acris BP2275 ACE2; antibody Ab
27 acris AP13057PU-N ACE2 (N-term); antibody Ab
28 acris AP13058PU-N ACE2 (N-term); antibody Ab
29 acris AP13062PU-N ACE2 (C-term); antibody Ab
30 scbt ACE2 ACE2 Antibody / ACE2 Antibodies;
31 sigma HPA000288 Anti-ACE2 antibody produced in rabbit ;

Exon, Intron and UTRs

Exon, Intron and UTRs of ACE2 Gene Transcript Isoforms

CpG near TSS

CpG dinucleotides near Transcription Start Site of ACE2 Gene

Gene Classification

[ - ] Gene Ontology

IDCategoryGO Term
GO:0009986 Component cell surface
GO:0005576 Component extracellular region
GO:0005615 Component extracellular space
GO:0016021 Component integral to membrane
GO:0045121 Component membrane raft
GO:0005634 Component nucleus
GO:0005886 Component plasma membrane
GO:0004180 Function carboxypeptidase activity
GO:0031404 Function chloride ion binding
GO:0001948 Function glycoprotein binding
GO:0046872 Function metal ion binding
GO:0008237 Function metallopeptidase activity
GO:0008233 Function peptidase activity
GO:0008241 Function peptidyl-dipeptidase activity
GO:0001618 Function viral receptor activity
GO:0008270 Function zinc ion binding
GO:0002005 Process angiotensin catabolic process in blood
GO:0003051 Process angiotensin-mediated drinking behavior
GO:0046718 Process entry of virus into host cell
GO:0044419 Process interspecies interaction between organisms
GO:0006800 Process oxygen and reactive oxygen species metabolic process
GO:0006508 Process proteolysis
GO:0032800 Process receptor biosynthetic process
GO:0042127 Process regulation of cell proliferation
GO:0001817 Process regulation of cytokine production
GO:0050727 Process regulation of inflammatory response
GO:0003081 Process regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by renin-angiotensin
GO:0019229 Process regulation of vasoconstriction
GO:0042312 Process regulation of vasodilation
GO:0046813 Process virion attachment, binding of host cell surface receptor

RefSeq Isoforms

[ - ] RefSeq Annotation and UniProt Database

No. RefSeq RNA RefSeq Protein UniProt Equivalent
1 NM_021804  UCSC Browser NP_068576

Transcript Sequences

[ - ] Transcript Accession Number Cloud [ GenBank ]

Protein Sequences

[ - ] Protein Accession Number Cloud [ GenPept ]

Mutations and SNPs

[ - ] NCBI's dbSNP


[ - ] Genes and Diseases - MIM at NCBI

Transcript Cluster

[ - ] NCBI's UniGene

Selected Publications

[ - ] Gene-related publications indexed at PubMed

  1. [ + ] Lai ZW, et al. (2009) "The identification of a calmodulin-binding domain within the cytoplasmic tail of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2." Endocrinology. 150(5):2376-2381. PMID:19164471
  2. [ + ] Yoshikawa N, et al. (2009) "Differential virological and immunological outcome of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in susceptible and resistant transgenic mice expressing human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2." J Virol. 83(11):5451-5465. PMID:19297479
  3. [ + ] Zhou L, et al. (2009) "Decreased expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is associated with tumor progression." Tohoku J Exp Med. 217(2):123-131. PMID:19212105
  4. [ + ] Kawajiri M, et al. (2009) "Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis." Mult Scler. 15(2):262-265. PMID:19136547
  5. [ + ] Ingelfinger JR, et al. (2009) "Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: implications for blood pressure and kidney disease." Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 18(1):79-84. PMID:19077694
  6. [ + ] Zhou JB, et al. (2009) "Meta-analysis of association of ACE2 G8790A polymorphism with Chinese Han essential hypertension." J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 10(1):31-34. PMID:19286756
  7. [ + ] Wigley FM, et al. (2009) "Vascular disease in scleroderma." Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 36(2-3):150-175. PMID:19067252
  8. [ + ] Stewart JM, et al. (2009) "Defects in cutaneous angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and angiotensin-(1-7) production in postural tachycardia syndrome." Hypertension. 53(5):767-774. PMID:19289653
  9. [ + ] Vaz-Silva J, et al. (2009) "The vasoactive peptide angiotensin-(1-7), its receptor Mas and the angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 are expressed in the human endometrium." Reprod Sci. 16(3):247-256. PMID:19164480
  10. [ + ] Zhong JC, et al. (2008) "Enhanced angiotensin converting enzyme 2 regulates the insulin/Akt signalling pathway by blockade of macrophage migration inhibitory factor expression." Br J Pharmacol. 153(1):66-74. PMID:17906677
  11. [ + ] Reich HN, et al. (2008) "Decreased glomerular and tubular expression of ACE2 in patients with type 2 diabetes and kidney disease." Kidney Int. 74(12):1610-1616. PMID:19034303
  12. [ + ] Rushworth CA, et al. (2008) "Residues affecting the chloride regulation and substrate selectivity of the angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE and ACE2) identified by site-directed mutagenesis." FEBS J. 275(23):6033-6042. PMID:19021774
  13. [ + ] Lu Y, et al. (2008) "Lipid rafts are involved in SARS-CoV entry into Vero E6 cells." Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 369(2):344-349. PMID:18279660
  14. [ + ] Feng Y, et al. (2008) "Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 overexpression in the subfornical organ prevents the angiotensin II-mediated pressor and drinking responses and is associated with angiotensin II type 1 receptor downregulation." Circ Res. 102(6):729-736. PMID:18258853
  15. [ + ] Guy JL, et al. (2008) "Functional angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is expressed in human cardiac myofibroblasts." Exp Physiol. 93(5):579-588. PMID:18223028
  16. [ + ] Lew RA, et al. (2008) "Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 catalytic activity in human plasma is masked by an endogenous inhibitor." Exp Physiol. 93(5):685-693. PMID:18223027
  17. [ + ] Soler MJ, et al. (2008) "Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and the kidney." Exp Physiol. 93(5):549-556. PMID:18223023
  18. [ + ] Wang SX, et al. (2008) "Polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene associated with magnitude of left ventricular hypertrophy in male patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy." Chin Med J (Engl). 121(1):27-31. PMID:18208662
  19. [ + ] Guo YJ, et al. (2008) "ACE2 overexpression inhibits angiotensin II-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in macrophages." Arch Med Res. 39(2):149-154. PMID:18164957
  20. [ + ] Barbe L, et al. (2008) "Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome." Mol Cell Proteomics. 7(3):499-508. PMID:18029348
  21. [ + ] du Cheyron D, et al. (2008) "Angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion genetic polymorphism: its impact on renal function in critically ill patients." Crit Care Med. 36(12):3178-3183. PMID:19020433
  22. [ + ] Mathewson AC, et al. (2008) "Interaction of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus and NL63 coronavirus spike proteins with angiotensin converting enzyme-2." J Gen Virol. 89(Pt 11):2741-2745. PMID:18931070
  23. [ + ] Palmer BR, et al. (2008) "Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 A1075G polymorphism is associated with survival in an acute coronary syndromes cohort." Am Heart J. 156(4):752-758. PMID:18926157
  24. [ + ] Glende J, et al. (2008) "Importance of cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains in the interaction of the S protein of SARS-coronavirus with the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2." Virology. 381(2):215-221. PMID:18814896
  25. [ + ] Yan QN, et al. (2008) "[Relationship of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene polymorphisms and vulnerability to coronary heart disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus]" Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 28(8):1365-1368. PMID:18753062
  26. [ + ] Lovren F, et al. (2008) "Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 confers endothelial protection and attenuates atherosclerosis." Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 295(4):H1377-H1384. PMID:18660448
  27. [ + ] van der Merwe L, et al. (2008) "Genetic variation in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene is associated with extent of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy." Hum Genet. 124(1):57-61. PMID:18560893
  28. [ + ] Wang S, et al. (2008) "Endocytosis of the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV spike protein together with virus receptor ACE2." Virus Res. 136(1-2):8-15. PMID:18554741
  29. [ + ] Zulli A, et al. (2008) "ACE2 and AT4R are present in diseased human blood vessels." Eur J Histochem. 52(1):39-44. PMID:18502721
  30. [ + ] Ravn LS, et al. (2008) "Angiotensinogen and ACE gene polymorphisms and risk of atrial fibrillation in the general population." Pharmacogenet Genomics. 18(6):525-533. PMID:18496132
  31. [ + ] Haga S, et al. (2008) "Modulation of TNF-alpha-converting enzyme by the spike protein of SARS-CoV and ACE2 induces TNF-alpha production and facilitates viral entry." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 105(22):7809-7814. PMID:18490652
  32. [ + ] Li F, et al. (2008) "Structural analysis of major species barriers between humans and palm civets for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infections." J Virol. 82(14):6984-6991. PMID:18448527
  33. [ + ] Li X, et al. (2008) "Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 is protective but downregulated in human and experimental lung fibrosis." Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 295(1):L178-L185. PMID:18441099
  34. [ + ] Wang G, et al. (2008) "Urinary mRNA expression of ACE and ACE2 in human type 2 diabetic nephropathy." Diabetologia. 51(6):1062-1067. PMID:18389211
  35. [ + ] Lin HX, et al. (2008) "Identification of residues in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of human coronavirus NL63 that are critical for the RBD-ACE2 receptor interaction." J Gen Virol. 89(Pt 4):1015-1024. PMID:18343844
  36. [ + ] Santos RA, et al. (2008) "Recent advances in the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin(1-7)-Mas axis." Exp Physiol. 93(5):519-527. PMID:18310257
  37. [ + ] Fan X, et al. (2007) "Polymorphisms of ACE2 gene are associated with essential hypertension and antihypertensive effects of Captopril in women." Clin Pharmacol Ther. 82(2):187-196. PMID:17473847
  38. [ + ] Raizada MK, et al. (2007) "ACE2: a new target for cardiovascular disease therapeutics." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 50(2):112-119. PMID:17703127
  39. [ + ] Jabrocka-Hybel A, et al. (2007) "Gene polymorphisms predisposing to cardiac hypertrophy in patients with cardiac syndrome X." Folia Med Cracov. 48(1-4):57-69. PMID:19051693
  40. [ + ] Lazartigues E, et al. (2007) "The two fACEs of the tissue renin-angiotensin systems: implication in cardiovascular diseases." Curr Pharm Des. 13(12):1231-1245. PMID:17504232
  41. [ + ] Niu W, et al. (2007) "Correlation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene polymorphisms with stage 2 hypertension in Han Chinese." Transl Res. 150(6):374-380. PMID:18022600
  42. [ + ] Wakahara S, et al. (2007) "Synergistic expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 in human renal tissue and confounding effects of hypertension on the ACE to ACE2 ratio." Endocrinology. 148(5):2453-2457. PMID:17303661
  43. [ + ] Dean RG, et al. (2007) "ACE2 and diabetic complications." Curr Pharm Des. 13(26):2730-2735. PMID:17897017
  44. [ + ] McCray PB Jr, et al. (2007) "Lethal infection of K18-hACE2 mice infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus." J Virol. 81(2):813-821. PMID:17079315
  45. [ + ] Batlle M, et al. (2006) "Increased expression of the renin-angiotensin system and mast cell density but not of angiotensin-converting enzyme II in late stages of human heart failure." J Heart Lung Transplant. 25(9):1117-1125. PMID:16962475
  46. [ + ] Lieb W, et al. (2006) "Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene polymorphisms with parameters of left ventricular hypertrophy in men. Results of the MONICA Augsburg echocardiographic substudy." J Mol Med. 84(1):88-96. PMID:16283142
  47. [ + ] Valdes G, et al. (2006) "Distribution of angiotensin-(1-7) and ACE2 in human placentas of normal and pathological pregnancies." Placenta. 27(2-3):200-207. PMID:16338465
  48. [ + ] Zhong J, et al. (2006) "Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene A/G polymorphism and elevated blood pressure in Chinese patients with metabolic syndrome." J Lab Clin Med. 147(2):91-95. PMID:16459167
  49. [ + ] Han DP, et al. (2006) "Identification of critical determinants on ACE2 for SARS-CoV entry and development of a potent entry inhibitor." Virology. 350(1):15-25. PMID:16510163
  50. [ + ] Mineharu Y, et al. (2006) "Association analysis of common variants of ELN, NOS2A, APOE and ACE2 to intracranial aneurysm." Stroke. 37(5):1189-1194. PMID:16574921