Sphk1 | GeneID:20698 | Mus musculus
[ ] NCBI Entrez Gene
|Gene ID||20698||Official Symbol||Sphk1|
|Full Name||sphingosine kinase 1|
|Description||sphingosine kinase 1|
|Also Known As||OTTMUSP00000004201; OTTMUSP00000004202; OTTMUSP00000004203; OTTMUSP00000004204; OTTMUSP00000004205|
Orthologs and Paralogs
|GeneID:483329||SPHK1||XP_540448.2||Canis lupus familiaris|
[ ] Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies
|1||abcam||ab16491||SPHK1 antibody (ab16491); Rabbit polyclonal to SPHK1|
|2||abcam||ab46719||SPHK1 antibody (ab46719); Rabbit polyclonal to SPHK1|
|3||acris||AP05256PU-N||Sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1); antibody|
|4||acris||AP05255PU-N||Sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) (pSer225); antibody|
|GO:0004143||Function||diacylglycerol kinase activity|
|GO:0008481||Function||sphinganine kinase activity|
|GO:0007205||Process||activation of protein kinase C activity by G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway|
|GO:0001568||Process||blood vessel development|
|GO:0043066||Process||negative regulation of apoptosis|
|GO:0008284||Process||positive regulation of cell proliferation|
|GO:0048146||Process||positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation|
|GO:0032651||Process||regulation of interleukin-1 beta production|
MicroRNA and Targets
[ ] MicroRNA Sequences and Transcript Targets from miRBase at Sanger
|RNA Target||miRNA #||mat miRNA||Mature miRNA Sequence|
- [ ] Jo SK, et al. (2009) "Divergent roles of sphingosine kinases in kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury." Kidney Int. 75(2):167-175. PMID:18971925
- [ ] Kawamori T, et al. (2009) "Role for sphingosine kinase 1 in colon carcinogenesis." FASEB J. 23(2):405-414. PMID:18824518
- [ ] Snider AJ, et al. (2009) "A role for sphingosine kinase 1 in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis." FASEB J. 23(1):143-152. PMID:18815359
- [ ] Yeh CC, et al. (2009) "Sphingolipid signaling and treatment during remodeling of the uninfarcted ventricular wall after myocardial infarction." Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 296(4):H1193-H1199. PMID:19234089
- [ ] Wadgaonkar R, et al. (2009) "Differential regulation of sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 in lung injury." Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 296(4):L603-L613. PMID:19168577
- [ ] Billich A, et al. (2009) "Sphingosine kinase 1 is essential for proteinase-activated receptor-1 signalling in epithelial and endothelial cells." Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 41(7):1547-1555. PMID:19162217
- [ ] Niessen F, et al. (2009) "Endogenous EPCR/aPC-PAR1 signaling prevents inflammation-induced vascular leakage and lethality." Blood. 113(12):2859-2866. PMID:19141861
- [ ] Bonder CS, et al. (2009) "Sphingosine kinase regulates the rate of endothelial progenitor cell differentiation." Blood. 113(9):2108-2117. PMID:19109558
- [ ] Kirby RJ, et al. (2009) "Dynamic regulation of sphingosine-1-phosphate homeostasis during development of mouse metanephric kidney." Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 296(3):F634-F641. PMID:19073640
- [ ] Donati C, et al. (2009) "TGFbeta protects mesoangioblasts from apoptosis via sphingosine kinase-1 regulation." Cell Signal. 21(2):228-236. PMID:18983913
- [ ] Tauseef M, et al. (2008) "Activation of sphingosine kinase-1 reverses the increase in lung vascular permeability through sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor signaling in endothelial cells." Circ Res. 103(10):1164-1172. PMID:18849324
- [ ] Coste O, et al. (2008) "Sphingosine 1-phosphate modulates spinal nociceptive processing." J Biol Chem. 283(47):32442-32451. PMID:18805787
- [ ] Hofmann LP, et al. (2008) "Sphingosine kinase 1 and 2 regulate the capacity of mesangial cells to resist apoptotic stimuli in an opposing manner." Biol Chem. 389(11):1399-1407. PMID:18783337
- [ ] Sobue S, et al. (2008) "v-Src oncogene product increases sphingosine kinase 1 expression through mRNA stabilization: alteration of AU-rich element-binding proteins." Oncogene. 27(46):6023-6033. PMID:18574469
- [ ] Wu YP, et al. (2008) "Sphingosine kinase 1/S1P receptor signaling axis controls glial proliferation in mice with Sandhoff disease." Hum Mol Genet. 17(15):2257-2264. PMID:18424450
- [ ] Jin ZQ, et al. (2008) "Ischaemic postconditioning protects isolated mouse hearts against ischaemia/reperfusion injury via sphingosine kinase isoform-1 activation." Cardiovasc Res. 79(1):134-140. PMID:18334546
- [ ] Lai WQ, et al. (2008) "The role of sphingosine kinase in a murine model of allergic asthma." J Immunol. 180(6):4323-4329. PMID:18322246
- [ ] Niessen F, et al. (2008) "Dendritic cell PAR1-S1P3 signalling couples coagulation and inflammation." Nature. 452(7187):654-658. PMID:18305483
- [ ] Li X, et al. (2008) "Basal and angiopoietin-1-mediated endothelial permeability is regulated by sphingosine kinase-1." Blood. 111(7):3489-3497. PMID:18199826
- [ ] Hammad SM, et al. (2008) "Dual and distinct roles for sphingosine kinase 1 and sphingosine 1 phosphate in the response to inflammatory stimuli in RAW macrophages." Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 85(3-4):107-114. PMID:18166496
- [ ] Meacci E, et al. (2008) "Sphingosine kinase activity is required for myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts." J Cell Physiol. 214(1):210-220. PMID:17654519
- [ ] Lai WQ, et al. (2008) "Anti-inflammatory effects of sphingosine kinase modulation in inflammatory arthritis." J Immunol. 181(11):8010-8017. PMID:19017993
- [ ] Kim M, et al. (2007) "Isoflurane mediates protection from renal ischemia-reperfusion injury via sphingosine kinase and sphingosine-1-phosphate-dependent pathways." Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 293(6):F1827-F1835. PMID:17898040
- [ ] Mizugishi K, et al. (2007) "Maternal disturbance in activated sphingolipid metabolism causes pregnancy loss in mice." J Clin Invest. 117(10):2993-3006. PMID:17885683
- [ ] Olivera A, et al. (2007) "The sphingosine kinase-sphingosine-1-phosphate axis is a determinant of mast cell function and anaphylaxis." Immunity. 26(3):287-297. PMID:17346996
- [ ] Soldi R, et al. (2007) "Sphingosine kinase 1 is a critical component of the copper-dependent FGF1 export pathway." Exp Cell Res. 313(15):3308-3318. PMID:17643421
- [ ] Kono Y, et al. (2007) "Sphingosine kinase 1 regulates differentiation of human and mouse lung fibroblasts mediated by TGF-beta1." Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 37(4):395-404. PMID:17641298
- [ ] Kusner DJ, et al. (2007) "The localization and activity of sphingosine kinase 1 are coordinately regulated with actin cytoskeletal dynamics in macrophages." J Biol Chem. 282(32):23147-23162. PMID:17519232
- [ ] Kacimi R, et al. (2007) "Adult cardiac fibroblasts null for sphingosine kinase-1 exhibit growth dysregulation and an enhanced proinflammatory response." J Mol Cell Cardiol. 43(1):85-91. PMID:17512943
- [ ] Jin ZQ, et al. (2007) "A sphingosine kinase 1 mutation sensitizes the myocardium to ischemia/reperfusion injury." Cardiovasc Res. 76(1):41-50. PMID:17610857
- [ ] Pappu R, et al. (2007) "Promotion of lymphocyte egress into blood and lymph by distinct sources of sphingosine-1-phosphate." Science. 316(5822):295-298. PMID:17363629
- [ ] Granata R, et al. (2007) "Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 induces angiogenesis through IGF-I- and SphK1-dependent mechanisms." J Thromb Haemost. 5(4):835-845. PMID:17388800
- [ ] Klawitter S, et al. (2007) "Extracellular nucleotides induce migration of renal mesangial cells by upregulating sphingosine kinase-1 expression and activity." Br J Pharmacol. 150(3):271-280. PMID:17200676
- [ ] Ma MM, et al. (2007) "Sphingosine kinase 1 participates in insulin signalling and regulates glucose metabolism and homeostasis in KK/Ay diabetic mice." Diabetologia. 50(4):891-900. PMID:17265031
- [ ] Zemann B, et al. (2007) "Normal neutrophil functions in sphingosine kinase type 1 and 2 knockout mice." Immunol Lett. 109(1):56-63. PMID:17292973
- [ ] Pilorget A, et al. (2007) "Modulation of P-glycoprotein function by sphingosine kinase-1 in brain endothelial cells." J Neurochem. 100(5):1203-1210. PMID:17316399
- [ ] Tao R, et al. (2007) "Deletion of the sphingosine kinase-1 gene influences cell fate during hypoxia and glucose deprivation in adult mouse cardiomyocytes." Cardiovasc Res. 74(1):56-63. PMID:17320845
- [ ] Roviezzo F, et al. (2007) "Sphingosine-1-phosphate/sphingosine kinase pathway is involved in mouse airway hyperresponsiveness." Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 36(6):757-762. PMID:17322125
- [ ] Kohno M, et al. (2006) "Intracellular role for sphingosine kinase 1 in intestinal adenoma cell proliferation." Mol Cell Biol. 26(19):7211-7223. PMID:16980623
- [ ] Zemann B, et al. (2006) "Sphingosine kinase type 2 is essential for lymphopenia induced by the immunomodulatory drug FTY720." Blood. 107(4):1454-1458. PMID:16223773
- [ ] Olivera A, et al. (2006) "IgE-dependent activation of sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 and secretion of sphingosine 1-phosphate requires Fyn kinase and contributes to mast cell responses." J Biol Chem. 281(5):2515-2525. PMID:16316995
- [ ] Kihara A, et al. (2006) "Mouse sphingosine kinase isoforms SPHK1a and SPHK1b differ in enzymatic traits including stability, localization, modification, and oligomerization." J Biol Chem. 281(7):4532-4539. PMID:16368679
- [ ] Wendler CC, et al. (2006) "Sphingosine-1-phosphate inhibits cell migration and endothelial to mesenchymal cell transformation during cardiac development." Dev Biol. 291(2):264-277. PMID:16434032
- [ ] Yadav M, et al. (2006) "Macrophage's proinflammatory response to a mycobacterial infection is dependent on sphingosine kinase-mediated activation of phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, protein kinase C, ERK1/2, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase." J Immunol. 176(9):5494-5503. PMID:16622018
- [ ] Venkataraman K, et al. (2006) "Extracellular export of sphingosine kinase-1a contributes to the vascular S1P gradient." Biochem J. 397(3):461-471. PMID:16623665
- [ ] Michaud J, et al. (2006) "Normal acute and chronic inflammatory responses in sphingosine kinase 1 knockout mice." FEBS Lett. 580(19):4607-4612. PMID:16876794
- [ ] Sun J, et al. (2006) "FHL2/SLIM3 decreases cardiomyocyte survival by inhibitory interaction with sphingosine kinase-1." Circ Res. 99(5):468-476. PMID:16888242
- [ ] He Q, et al. (2006) "Ceramide synthase inhibition by fumonisin B1 treatment activates sphingolipid-metabolizing systems in mouse liver." Toxicol Sci. 94(2):388-397. PMID:16960033
- [ ] Katayama S, et al. (2005) "Antisense transcription in the mammalian transcriptome." Science. 309(5740):1564-1566. PMID:16141073
- [ ] Carninci P, et al. (2005) "The transcriptional landscape of the mammalian genome." Science. 309(5740):1559-1563. PMID:16141072
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), produced by sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) or kinase 2 (SphK2), mediates biological effects through intracellular and/or extracellular mechanisms. Here we determined a role for these kinases in kidney injury of wild-type mice following ischemia-reperfusion. SphK1 but not SphK2 mRNA expression and activity increased in the kidney following injury relative to sham-operated animals. Although SphK1(-/-) mice had no alteration in renal function following injury, mice with a disrupted SphK2 gene (SphK2(tr/tr)) had histological damage and impaired function. The immune-modulating pro-drug, FTY720, an S1P agonist failed to provide protection in SphK2(tr/tr) mice. Injured kidneys of these mice showed increased neutrophil infiltration and neutrophil chemokine expression along with a 3- to 5-fold increase in expression of the G-protein-coupled receptor S1P(3) compared to heterozygous SphK2(+/tr) mice. Kidney function and reduced vascular permeability were preserved in S1P(3)(-/-) compared to S1P(3)(+/-) mice after ischemia-reperfusion injury, suggesting increased S1P(3) mRNA may play a role in the injury of SphK2(tr/tr) mice. Our study suggests that constitutive expression of SphK2 may contribute to reduced ischemia-reperfusion injury of the kidney, and its absence may enhance injury due to increased neutrophil infiltration and S1P(3) activation. We also confirm that SphK2 is necessary to mediate the protective effects of FTY720.
Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) phosphorylates sphingosine to form sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and is a critical regulator of sphingolipid-mediated functions. Cell-based studies suggest a tumor-promoting function for the SphK1/S1P pathway. Also, our previous studies implicated the SphK1/S1P pathway in the induction of the arachidonic acid cascade, a major inflammatory pathway involved in colon carcinogenesis. Therefore, we investigated whether the SphK1/S1P pathway is necessary for mediating carcinogenesis in vivo. Here, we report that 89% (42/47) of human colon cancer samples stained positively for SphK1, whereas normal colon mucosa had negative or weak staining. Adenomas had higher expression of SphK1 vs. normal mucosa, and colon cancers with metastasis had higher expression of SphK1 than those without metastasis. In the azoxymethane (AOM) murine model of colon cancer, SphK1 and S1P were significantly elevated in colon cancer tissues compared to normal mucosa. Moreover, blood levels of S1P were higher in mice with colon cancers than in those without cancers. Notably, SphK1(-/-) mice subjected to AOM had significantly less aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and significantly reduced colon cancer development. These results are the first in vivo evidence that the SphK1/S1P pathway contributes to colon carcinogenesis and that inhibition of this pathway is a potential target for chemoprevention.
The bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is emerging as an important mediator of immune and inflammatory responses. S1P formation is catalyzed by sphingosine kinase (SK), of which the SK1 isoenzyme is activated by tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-alpha). SK1 has been shown to be required for mediating TNF-alpha inflammatory responses in cells, including induction of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Because TNF-alpha and COX-2 are increased in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), we investigated the role of SK1 in a murine model of colitis. SK1(-/-) mice treated with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) had significantly less blood loss, weight loss, colon shortening, colon histological damage, and splenomegaly than did wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, SK1(-/-) mice had no systemic inflammatory response. Moreover, WT but not SK1(-/-) mice treated with dextran sulfate sodium had significant increases in blood S1P levels, colon SK1 message and activity, and colon neutrophilic infiltrate. Unlike WT mice, SK1(-/-) mice failed to show colonic COX-2 induction despite an exaggerated TNF-alpha response; thus implicating for the first time SK1 in TNF-alpha-mediated COX-2 induction in vivo. Inhibition of SK1 may prove to be a valuable therapeutic target by inhibiting systemic and local inflammation in IBD.
The sphingosine kinase (SphK)/sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) pathway, known to determine the fate and growth of various cell types, can enhance cardiac myocyte survival in vitro and provide cardioprotection in acute ex vivo heart preparations. However, the relevance of these findings to chronic cardiac pathology has never been demonstrated. We hypothesized that S1P signaling is impaired during chronic remodeling of the uninfarcted ventricle during the evolution of post-myocardial infarction (MI) cardiomyopathy and that a therapeutic enhancement of S1P signaling would ameliorate ventricular dysfunction. SphK expression and activity were measured in the remote, uninfarcted myocardium (RM) of C57Bl/6 mice subjected to coronary artery ligation. The mRNA expression of S1P receptor isoforms was also measured, as was the activation of the downstream S1P receptor mediators. A cardioprotective role for S1P(1) receptor agonism was tested via the administration of the S1P(1)-selective agonist SEW2871 during and after MI. As a result, the expression data suggested that a dramatic reduction in SphK activity in the RM early after MI may reflect a combination of posttranscriptional and posttranslational modulation. SphK activity continued to decline gradually during chronic post-MI remodeling, when S1P(1) receptor mRNA also fell below baseline. The S1P(1)-specific agonism with oral SEW2871 during the first 2-wk after MI reduced apoptosis in the RM and resulted in improved myocardial function, as reflected in the echocardiographic measurement of fractional shortening. In conclusion, these results provide the first documentation of alterations in S1P-mediated signaling during the in situ development of cardiomyopathy and suggest a possible therapeutic role for the pharmacological S1P receptor agonism in the post-MI heart.
Two mammalian sphingosine kinase (SphK) isoforms, SphK1 and SphK2, possess identical kinase domains but have distinct kinetic properties and subcellular localizations, suggesting each has one or more specific roles in sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) generation. Although both kinases use sphingosine as a substrate to generate S1P, the mechanisms controlling SphK activation and subsequent S1P generation during lung injury are not fully understood. In this study, we established a murine lung injury model to investigate LPS-induced lung injury in SphK1 knockout (SphK1(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice. We found that SphK1(-/-) mice were much more susceptible to LPS-induced lung injury compared with their WT counterparts, quantified by multiple parameters including cytokine induction. Intriguingly, overexpression of WT SphK1 delivered by adenoviral vector to the lungs protected SphK1(-/-) mice from lung injury and attenuated the severity of the response to LPS. However, adenoviral overexpression of a SphK1 kinase-dead mutant (SphKKD) in SphK1(-/-) mouse lungs further exacerbated the response to LPS as well as the extent of lung injury. WT SphK2 adenoviral overexpression also failed to provide protection and, in fact, augmented the degree of LPS-induced lung injury. This suggested that, in vascular injury, S1P generated by SphK2 activation plays a distinctly separate role compared with SphK1-dependent S1P generation and survival signaling. Microarray and real-time RT-PCR analysis of SphK1 and SphK2 expression levels during lung injury revealed that, in WT mice, LPS treatment caused significantly enhanced SphK1 expression ( approximately 5x) levels within 6 h, which declined back to baseline levels by 24 h posttreatment. In contrast, expression of SphK2 was gradually induced following LPS treatment and was elevated within 24 h. Collectively, our results for the first time demonstrate distinct functional roles of the two SphK isoforms in the regulation of LPS-induced lung injury.
There is accumulating evidence that activation of sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) is an important element in intracellular signalling cascades initiated by stimulation of multiple receptors, including certain growth factor, cytokine, and also G-protein coupled receptors. We here report that stimulation of the lung epithelial cell line A549 by thrombin leads to transient increase of SPHK1 activity and elevation of intracellular sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P); abrogation of this stimulation by SPHK1-specific siRNA, pharmacological inhibition, or expression of a dominant-negative SPHK1 mutant blocks the response to thrombin, as measured by secretion of MCP-1, IL-6, IL-8, and PGE(2). Using selective stimulation of proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) a specific involvement of SPHK1 in the PAR-1 induced responses in A549 cell, including activation of NFkappaB, was evident, while PAR-2 and PAR-4 responses were independent of SPHK1. Moreover, PAR-1 or thrombin-induced cytokine production and adhesion factor expression of human umbilical vein endothelial cells was also seen to depend on SPHK1. Using dermal microvascular endothelial cells from SPHK1-deficient mice, we showed that absence of the enzyme abrogates MCP-1 production induced in these cells upon treatment with thrombin or PAR-1 activating peptide. We propose SPHK1 inhibition as a novel way to block PAR-1 mediated signalling, which could be useful in treatment of a number of diseases, in particular in atherosclerosis.
Protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling can play opposing roles in sepsis, either promoting dendritic cell (DC)-dependent coagulation and inflammation or reducing sepsis lethality due to activated protein C (aPC) therapy. To further define this PAR1 paradox, we focused on the vascular effects of PAR1 signaling. Pharmacological perturbations of the intravascular coagulant balance were combined with genetic mouse models to dissect the roles of endogenously generated thrombin and aPC during escalating systemic inflammation. Acute blockade of the aPC pathway with a potent inhibitory antibody revealed that thrombin-PAR1 signaling increases inflammation-induced vascular hyperpermeability. Conversely, aPC-PAR1 signaling and the endothelial cell PC receptor (EPCR) prevented vascular leakage, and pharmacologic or genetic blockade of this pathway sensitized mice to LPS-induced lethality. Signaling-selective aPC variants rescued mice with defective PC activation from vascular leakage and lethality. Defects in the aPC pathway were fully compensated by sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor 3 (S1P3) deficiency or by selective agonists of the S1P receptor 1 (S1P1), indicating that PAR1 signaling contributes to setting the tone for the vascular S1P1/S1P3 balance. Thus, the activating proteases and selectivity in coupling to S1P receptor subtypes determine vascular PAR1 signaling specificity in systemic inflammatory response syndromes in vivo.
Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are incorporated into foci of neovascularization where they undergo differentiation to mature endothelial cells (ECs). We show here that the enzyme sphingosine kinase-1 (SK-1) regulates the rate and direction of EPC differentiation without effect on the hematopoietic compartment. EPCs have high levels of SK-1 activity, which diminishes with differentiation and is, at least partially, responsible for maintaining their EPC phenotype. EPCs from SK-1 knockout mice form more adherent EC units and acquire a mature EC phenotype more rapidly. Conversely, EPCs from mice overexpressing SK-1 in the EC compartment are retarded in their differentiation. Exogenous regulation of SK-1 levels in normal EPCs, by genetic and pharmacologic means, including the immunomodulating drug FTY720, recapitulates these effects on EC differentiation. SK-1 knockout mice have higher levels of circulating EPCs, an exaggerated response to erythropoietin-induced EPC mobilization, and, in a mouse model of kidney ischemia reperfusion injury, exhibit a recovery similar to that of ischemic mice administered exogenous EPCs. Thus, SK-1 is a critical player in EPC differentiation into EC pointing to the potential utility of SK-1 modifying agents in the specific manipulation of endothelial development and repair.
Branching morphogenesis of the metanephric kidney is critically dependent on the delicate orchestration of diverse cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and differentiation. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent lipid mediator influencing many of these cellular events. We report increased expression and activity of both sphingosine kinases and S1P phosphatases during development of the mouse metanephric kidney from induction at embryonic day 11.5 to maturity. Sphingosine kinase activity exceeded S1P phosphatase activity in embryonic kidneys, resulting in a net accumulation of S1P, while kinase and phosphatase activities were similar in adult tissue, resulting in reduced S1P content. Sphingosine kinase expression was greater in the metanephric mesenchyme than in the ureteric bud, while the S1P phosphatase SPP2 was expressed at greater levels in the ureteric bud. Treatment of cultured embryonic kidneys with sphingosine kinase inhibitors resulted in a dose-dependent reduction of ureteric bud tip numbers and increased apoptosis. Exogenous S1P rescued kidneys from apoptosis induced by kinase inhibitors. Ureteric bud tip number was unaffected by exogenous S1P in kidneys treated with N,N-dimethylsphingosine, although tip number increased in those treated with d,l-threo-dihydrosphingosine. S1P1 and S1P2 were the predominant S1P receptors expressed in the embryonic kidney. S1P1 expression increased during renal development while expression of S1P2 decreased, and both receptors were expressed predominantly in the metanephric mesenchyme. These results demonstrate dynamic regulation of S1P homeostasis during renal morphogenesis and suggest that differential expression of S1P metabolic enzymes and receptors provides a novel mechanism contributing to the regulation of kidney development.
Mesoangioblasts are vessel-derived progenitor cells that can be induced to differentiate into different cell types of the mesoderm such as muscle and bone. Here we examined the role of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta), a pleiotropic cytokine that plays a major role in development and specifically induces smooth muscle differentiation of mesoangioblasts, in the regulation of death and survival of these cells. TGFbeta exerts a marked anti-apoptotic action in mesoangioblasts with a mechanism involving regulation of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), one of the isoforms responsible for S1P formation. Treatment with the cytokine efficaciously protected mesoangioblasts from apoptosis induced by serum starvation or staurosporine treatment assessed by various means such as activation of caspase-3, determination of cytoplasmic histone-associated-DNA-fragments and PE-AnnexinV staining. The protective action of TGFbeta from staurosporine-induced apoptosis was strongly reduced when the SphK activity was inhibited by drugs, when SphK1 but not SphK2 was downregulated by specific siRNA and when a SphK1 dominant negative mutant was overexpressed. Staurosporine treatment induced down-regulation of both SphK isoforms and TGFbeta rescued SphK1 but not SphK2 expression. Interestingly, TGFbeta strongly enhanced SphK activity during staurosporine-induced cell death. Both TGFbeta-induced SphK1 up-regulation and TGFbeta anti-apoptotic action were found to be dependent on p42/44 MAPK activation.
The lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), the product of sphingosine kinase (SPHK)-induced phosphorylation of sphingosine, is known to stabilize interendothelial junctions and prevent microvessel leakiness. Here, we investigated the role of SPHK1 activation in regulating the increase in pulmonary microvessel permeability induced by challenge of mice with lipopolysaccharide or thrombin ligation of protease-activating receptor (PAR)-1. Both lipopolysaccharide and thrombin increased mouse lung microvascular permeability and resulted in a delayed activation of SPHK1 that was coupled to the onset of restoration of permeability. In contrast to wild-type mice, Sphk1(-/-) mice showed markedly enhanced pulmonary edema formation in response to lipopolysaccharide and PAR-1 activation. Using endothelial cells challenged with thrombin concentration (50 nmol/L) that elicited a transient but reversible increase in endothelial permeability, we observed that increased SPHK1 activity and decreased intracellular S1P concentration preceded the onset of barrier recovery. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that released S1P in a paracrine manner activates its receptor S1P1 to restore the endothelial barrier. Knockdown of SPHK1 decreased basal S1P production and Rac1 activity but increased basal endothelial permeability. In SPHK1-depleted cells, PAR-1 activation failed to induce Rac1 activation but augmented RhoA activation and endothelial hyperpermeability response. Knockdown of S1P1 receptor in endothelial cells also enhanced the increase in endothelial permeability following PAR-1 activation. S1P treatment of Sphk1(-/-) lungs or SPHK1-deficient endothelial cells restored endothelial barrier function. Our results suggest the crucial role of activation of the SPHK1-->S1P-->S1P1 signaling pathway in response to inflammatory mediators in endothelial cells in regulating endothelial barrier homeostasis.
Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (S1P) modulates various cellular functions such as apoptosis, cell differentiation, and migration. Although S1P is an abundant signaling molecule in the central nervous system, very little is known about its influence on neuronal functions. We found that S1P concentrations were selectively decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of adult rats in an acute and an inflammatory pain model. Pharmacological inhibition of sphingosine kinases (SPHK) decreased basal pain thresholds and SphK2 knock-out mice, but not SphK1 knock-out mice, had a significant decrease in withdrawal latency. Intrathecal application of S1P or sphinganine 1-phosphate (dihydro-S1P) reduced the pain-related (nociceptive) behavior in the formalin assay. S1P and dihydro-S1P inhibited cyclic AMP (cAMP) synthesis, a key second messenger of spinal nociceptive processing, in spinal cord neurons. By combining fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP measurements with Multi Epitope Ligand Cartography (MELC), we showed that S1P decreased cAMP synthesis in excitatory dorsal horn neurons. Accordingly, intrathecal application of dihydro-S1P abolished the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of NMDA receptors in the outer laminae of the spinal cord. Taken together, the data show that S1P modulates spinal nociceptive processing through inhibition of neuronal cAMP synthesis.
Abstract Sphingosine kinases (SKs) are key enzymes regulating the production of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which determines important cell responses including cell growth and death. Here we show that renal mesangial cells isolated from wild-type, SK-1(-/-), and SK-2(-/-) mice show a differential response to apoptotic stimuli. Wild-type mesangial cells responded to staurosporine with increased DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 processing, which was enhanced in SK-1(-/-) cells. In contrast, SK-2(-/-) cells were highly resistant to staurosporine-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the basal phosphorylation and activity of the anti-apoptotic protein kinase B (PKB) and of its substrate Bad were decreased in SK-1(-/-) but not in SK-2(-/-) cells. Upon staurosporine treatment, phosphorylation of PKB and Bad decreased in wild-type and SK-1(-/-) cells, but remained high in SK-2(-/-) cells. In addition, the anti-apoptotic Bcl-X(L) was significantly upregulated in SK-2(-/-) cells, which may further contribute to the protective state of these cells. In summary, our data show that SK-1 and SK-2 have opposite effects on the capacity of mesangial cells to resist apoptotic stimuli. This is due to differential modulation of the PKB/Bad pathway and of Bcl-X(L) expression. Thus, subtype-selective targeting of SKs will be critical when considering these enzymes as therapeutic targets for the treatment of inflammation or cancer.
Sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) is overexpressed in solid tumors and leukemia. However, the mechanism of SPHK1 overexpression by oncogenes has not been defined. We found that v-Src-transformed NIH3T3 cells showed a high SPHK1 mRNA, SPHK1 protein and SPHK enzyme activity. siRNA of SPHK1 inhibited the growth of v-Src-NIH3T3, suggesting the involvement of SPHK1 in v-Src-induced oncogenesis. v-Src-NIH3T3 showed activations of protein kinase C-alpha, signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Their inhibition suppressed SPHK1 expression in v-Src-NIH3T3, whereas their overexpression increased SPHK1 mRNA in NIH3T3. Unexpectedly, the nuclear run-on assay and the promoter analysis using 5'-promoter region of mouse SPHK1 did not show any significant difference between mock- and v-Src-NIH3T3. Furthermore, the half-life of SPHK1 mRNA in mock-NIH3T3 was nearly 15 min, whereas that of v-Src-NIH3T3 was much longer. Examination of two AU-rich region-binding proteins, AUF1 and HuR, that regulate mRNA decay reciprocally, showed decreased total AUF1 protein associated with increased tyrosine-phosphorylated form and increased serine-phosphorylated HuR protein in v-Src-NIH3T3. Modulation of AUF1 and HuR by their overexpression or siRNA revealed that SPHK1 mRNA in v-Src- and mock-NIH3T3 was regulated reciprocally by these factors. Our results showed, for the first time, a novel mechanism of v-Src-induced SPHK1 overexpression.
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid-signaling molecule produced by sphingosine kinase in response to a wide number of stimuli. By acting through a family of widely expressed G protein-coupled receptors, S1P regulates diverse physiological processes. Here we examined the role of S1P signaling in neurodegeneration using a mouse model of Sandhoff disease, a prototypical neuronopathic lysosomal storage disorder. When sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) was deleted in Sandhoff disease mice, a milder disease course occurred, with decreased proliferation of glial cells and less-pronounced astrogliosis. A similar result of milder disease course and reduced astroglial proliferation was obtained by deletion of the gene for the S1P(3) receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor enriched in astrocytes. Our studies demonstrate a functional role of S1P synthesis and receptor expression in astrocyte proliferation leading to astrogliosis during the terminal stages of neurodegeneration in Sandhoff disease mice. Because astrocyte responses are involved in many types of neurodegeneration, the Sphk1/S1P receptor signaling axis may be generally important during the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.
AIMS: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays a vital role in cytoskeletal rearrangement, development, and apoptosis. Sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1), the key enzyme catalyzing the formation of S1P, mediates ischaemic preconditioning. Ischaemic postconditioning (POST) has been shown to protect hearts against ischaemia/reperfusion injury (IR). To date, no studies have examined the role of SphK1 in POST. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wild-type (WT) and SphK1 null (KO) mouse hearts were subjected to IR (45 min of global ischaemia and 45 min of reperfusion) in a Langendorff apparatus. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), maximum velocity of increase or decrease of LV pressure (+/-dP/dtmax), and LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were recorded. Infarction size was measured by 1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. POST, consisting of 5 s of ischaemia and 5 s of reperfusion for three cycles after the index ischaemia, protected hearts against IR: recovery of LVDP and +/-dP/dtmax were elevated; LVEDP was decreased; infarction size (% of risk area) was reduced from 40 +/- 2% in the control group to 29 +/- 2% of the risk area in the POST group (P < 0.05, n = 4 per group). Phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinases detected by Western blotting was increased at 10 min of reperfusion. The protection induced by POST was abolished in KO hearts. Infarction size in KO hearts (57 +/- 5%) was not different from the KO control group (53 +/- 5% of risk area, n = 4, P = NS). CONCLUSIONS: A short period of ischaemic POST protected WT mouse hearts against IR. The cardiac protection induced by POST was abrogated in SphK1-KO mouse hearts. Thus, SphK1 is critical for successful ischaemic POST.
Asthma is an allergic disease characterized by chronic airway eosinophilia and pulmonary infiltration of lymphocytes, particularly of the Th2 subtype, macrophages and mast cells. Previous studies have shown a pivotal role for sphingosine kinase (SphK) on various proinflammatory cells, such as lymphocyte and eosinophil migration and mast cell degranulation. We therefore examined the roles of SphK in a murine model of allergic asthma. In mice previously sensitized to OVA, i.p. administration of N,N-dimethylsphingosine (DMS), a potent SphK inhibitor, significantly reduced the total inflammatory cell infiltrate and eosinophilia and the IL-4, IL-5, and eotaxin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in response to inhaled OVA challenge. In addition, DMS significantly suppressed OVA-induced inflammatory infiltrates and mucus production in the lungs, and airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in a dose-dependent manner. OVA-induced lymphocyte proliferation and IL-4 and IL-5 secretion were reduced in thoracic lymph node cultures from DMS-treated mice. Moreover, similar reduction in inflammatory infiltrates, bronchoalveolar lavage, IL-4, IL-5, eotaxin, and serum OVA-specific IgE levels was observed in mice with SphK1 knock-down via small interfering RNA approach. Together, these data demonstrate the therapeutic potential of SphK modulation in allergic airways disease.
Defining critical points of modulation across heterogeneous clinical syndromes may provide insight into new therapeutic approaches. Coagulation initiated by the cytokine-receptor family member known as tissue factor is a hallmark of systemic inflammatory response syndromes in bacterial sepsis and viral haemorrhagic fevers, and anticoagulants can be effective in severe sepsis with disseminated intravascular coagulation. The precise mechanism coupling coagulation and inflammation remains unresolved. Here we show that protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signalling sustains a lethal inflammatory response that can be interrupted by inhibition of either thrombin or PAR1 signalling. The sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) axis is a downstream component of PAR1 signalling, and by combining chemical and genetic probes for S1P receptor 3 (S1P3) we show a critical role for dendritic cell PAR1-S1P3 cross-talk in regulating amplification of inflammation in sepsis syndrome. Conversely, dendritic cells sustain escalated systemic coagulation and are the primary hub at which coagulation and inflammation intersect within the lymphatic compartment. Loss of dendritic cell PAR1-S1P3 signalling sequesters dendritic cells and inflammation into draining lymph nodes, and attenuates dissemination of interleukin-1beta to the lungs. Thus, activation of dendritic cells by coagulation in the lymphatics emerges as a previously unknown mechanism that promotes systemic inflammation and lethality in decompensated innate immune responses.
Endothelial cells (ECs) regulate the barrier function of blood vessels. Here we show that basal and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1)-regulated control of EC permeability is mediated by 2 different functional states of sphingosine kinase-1 (SK-1). Mice depleted of SK-1 have increased vascular leakiness, whereas mice transgenic for SK-1 in ECs show attenuation of leakiness. Furthermore, Ang-1 rapidly and transiently stimulates SK-1 activity and phosphorylation, and induces an increase in intracellular sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) concentration. Overexpression of SK-1 resulted in inhibition of permeability similar to that seen for Ang-1, whereas knockdown of SK-1 by small interfering RNA blocked Ang-1-mediated inhibition of permeability. Transfection with SKS225A, a nonphosphorylatable mutant of SK-1, inhibited basal leakiness, and both SKS225A and a dominant-negative SK-1 mutant removed the capacity of Ang-1 to inhibit permeability. These effects were independent of extracellular S1P as knockdown or inhibition of S1P1, S1P2, or S1P3, did not affect the Ang-1 response. Thus, SK-1 levels in ECs powerfully regulate basal permeability in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the Ang-1-induced inhibition of leakiness is mediated through activation of SK-1, defining a new signaling pathway in the Ang-1 regulation of permeability.
Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) and its product sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) have been implicated in the regulation of many cellular processes including growth regulation, protection from apoptosis, stimulation of angiogenesis, and most recently as mediators of the TNF-alpha inflammatory response. In this study we set out to examine the role of SK1/S1P in the RAW macrophage response to the potent inflammatory stimulus lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We show that LPS increases cellular levels of SK1 message and protein. This increase is at the transcriptional level and is accompanied by increased SK activity and generation of S1P. S1P is able to cause increases in COX-2 and PGE2 levels in RAW cells. Knockdown of SK1 using siRNA is able to inhibit the TNF but not the LPS inflammatory response. Moreover, knockdown of SK1 enhances both TNF- and LPS-induced apoptosis. These data indicate that there is a dual and distinct role for SK1 and S1P in the TNF and the LPS inflammatory pathways.
Sphingosine kinase (SphK) is a conserved lipid kinase that catalyzes the formation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), an important lipid mediator, which regulates fundamental biological processes. Here, we provide evidence that SphK is required for the achievement of cell growth arrest as well as myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. Indeed, SphK activity, SphK1 protein content and S1P formation were found to be enhanced in myoblasts that became confluent as well as in differentiating cells. Enforced expression of SphK1 reduced the myoblast proliferation rate, enhanced the expression of myogenic differentiation markers and anticipated the onset of differentiated muscle phenotype. Conversely, down-regulation of SphK1 by specific silencing by RNA interference or overexpression of the catalytically inactive SphK1, significantly increased cell growth and delayed the beginning of myogenesis; noticeably, exogenous addition of S1P rescued the biological processes. Importantly, stimulation of myogenesis in SphK1-overexpressing myoblasts was abrogated by treatment with short interfering RNA specific for S1P(2) receptor. This is the first report of the role of endogenous SphK1 in myoblast growth arrest and stimulation of myogenesis through the formation of S1P that acts as morphogenic factor via the engagement of S1P(2).
Sphingosine kinase (SphK) is a key enzyme in the sphingolipid metabolic pathway responsible for phosphorylating sphingosine into sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). SphK/S1P play a critical role in angiogenesis, inflammation, and various pathologic conditions. Recently, S1P(1) receptor was found to be expressed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium, and S1P signaling via S1P(1) enhances synoviocyte proliferation, COX-2 expression, and prostaglandin E(2) production. Here, we examined the role of SphK/S1P in RA using a potent SphK inhibitor, N,N-dimethylsphingosine (DMS), and a molecular approach against one of its isoenzymes, SphK1. We observed that levels of S1P in the synovial fluid of RA patients were significantly higher than those of osteoarthritis patients. Additionally, DMS significantly reduced the levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-1beta, MCP-1, and MMP-9 in cell-contact assays using both Jurkat-U937 cells and RA PBMCs. In a murine collagen-induced arthritis model, i.p. administration of DMS significantly inhibited disease severity and reduced articular inflammation and joint destruction. Treatment of DMS also down-regulated serum levels IL-6, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, S1P, and IgG1 and IgG2a anti-collagen Ab. Furthermore, DMS-treated mice also displayed suppressed proinflammatory cytokine production in response to type II collagen in vitro. Moreover, similar reduction in incidence and disease activity was observed in mice treated with SphK1 knock-down via small interfering RNA approach. Together, these results demonstrate SphK modulation may provide a novel approach in treating chronic autoimmune conditions such as RA by inhibiting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
The inhalational anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to protect against renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Previous studies demonstrated that isoflurane modulates sphingolipid metabolism in renal proximal tubule cells. We sought to determine whether isoflurane stimulates sphingosine kinase (SK) activity and synthesis of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in renal proximal tubule cells to mediate renal protection via the S1P signaling pathway. Isoflurane anesthesia reduced the degree of renal failure and necrosis in a murine model of renal IR injury. This protection with isoflurane was reversed by SK inhibitors (DMS and SKI-II) as well as an S1P(1) receptor antagonist (VPC23019). In addition, mice deficient in SK1 enzyme were not protected from IR injury with isoflurane. SK activity as well as SK1 mRNA expression increased in both cultured human proximal tubule cells (HK-2) and mouse kidneys after exposure to isoflurane. Finally, isoflurane increased the generation of S1P in HK-2 cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that isoflurane activates SK in renal tubule cells and initiates S1P-->S1P(1) receptor signaling to mediate the renal protective effects. Our findings may help to unravel the cellular signaling pathways of volatile anesthetic-mediated renal protection and lead to new therapeutic applications of inhalational anesthetics during the perioperative period.
Uterine decidualization, a process that occurs in response to embryo implantation, is critical for embryonic survival and thus is a key event for successful pregnancy. Here we show that the sphingolipid metabolic pathway is highly activated in the deciduum during pregnancy and disturbance of the pathway by disruption of sphingosine kinase (Sphk) genes causes defective decidualization with severely compromised uterine blood vessels, leading to early pregnancy loss. Sphk-deficient female mice (Sphk1(-/-)Sphk2(+/-)) exhibited both an enormous accumulation of dihydrosphingosine and sphingosine and a reduction in phosphatidylethanolamine levels in pregnant uteri. These mice also revealed increased cell death in decidual cells, decreased cell proliferation in undifferentiated stromal cells, and massive breakage of decidual blood vessels, leading to uterine hemorrhage and early embryonic lethality. Thus, sphingolipid metabolism regulates proper uterine decidualization and blood vessel stability. Our findings also suggest that disturbance in sphingolipid metabolism may be considered as a cause of pregnancy loss in humans.
Sphingosine-1-phosphate, a key mediator in immune cell trafficking, is elevated in the lungs of asthmatic patients and regulates pulmonary epithelium permeability. Stimulation of mast cells by allergens induces two mammalian sphingosine kinases (Sphk1 and Sphk2) to produce sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Little is known about the individual role of these kinases in regulating immune cell function. Here we show that in mast cells, Sphk2 is required for production of S1P, for calcium influx, for activation of protein kinase C, and for cytokine production and degranulation. However, susceptibility to in vivo anaphylaxis is determined both by S1P within the mast cell compartment and by circulating S1P generated by Sphk1 predominantly from a non-mast cell source(s). Thus, sphingosine kinases are determinants of mast cell responsiveness, demonstrating a previously unrecognized relationship with anaphylaxis.
Sphingosine kinase 1 catalyzes the formation of sphingosine-1-phosphate, a lipid mediator involved in the regulation of angiogenesis. Sphingosine kinase 1 is constitutively released from cells, even though it lacks a classical signal peptide sequence. Because copper-dependent non-classical stress-induced release of FGF1 also regulates angiogenesis, we questioned whether sphingosine kinase 1 is involved in the FGF1 release pathway. We report that (i) the coexpression of sphingosine kinase 1 with FGF1 inhibited the release of sphingosine kinase 1 at 37 degrees C; (ii) sphingosine kinase 1 was released at 42 degrees C in complex with FGF1; (iii) sphingosine kinase 1 null cells failed to release FGF1 at stress; (iv) sphingosine kinase 1 is a high affinity copper-binding protein which formed a complex with FGF1 in a cell-free system, and (v) sphingosine kinase 1 over expression rescued the release of FGF1 from inhibition by the copper chelator, tetrathiomolybdate. We propose that sphingosine kinase 1 is a component of the copper-dependent FGF1 release pathway.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) contributes to the progression of pulmonary fibrosis through up-regulation of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) as lung myofibroblast differentiation. Bioactive sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) has been shown to mimic TGF-beta signals; however, the function of S1P in lung fibrotic process has not been well documented. We found, in a mouse model of bleomycin lung fibrosis, that SPHK1 and alpha-SMA were colocalized within lung fibrotic foci and that these expressions were significantly increased in primary cultured fibroblasts. Using human lung fibroblasts WI-38, we explored the rationale of sphingosine kinase (SPHK) with TGF-beta1 stimulation. SPHK inhibitors and small interference RNA (siRNA) targeted SPHK1 decreased alpha-SMA and fibronectin expression up-regulated by TGF-beta1. In the meantime, SPHK1 inhibition did not affect smad2 phosphorylation in response to TGF-beta1. Then we examined whether S1P receptors transactivation may affect TGF-beta signals. siRNA against S1P(2) and S1P(3), but not S1P(1), reduced alpha-SMA expression as well as Y-27632, Rho kinase inhibitor. We also detected activation of Rho GTPase upon stimulation of TGF-beta1 on the cell membrane where S1P(2) or S1P(3) was overexpressed. These data suggested that SPHK1 activation by TGF-beta1 leads to Rho-associated myofibroblasts differentiation mediated by transactivated S1P receptors in the lung fibrogenic process.
The physiologic and pathologic functions of sphingosine kinase (SK) require translocation to specific membrane compartments. We tested the hypothesis that interactions with actin filaments regulate the localization of SK1 to membrane surfaces, including the plasma membrane and phagosome. Macrophage activation is accompanied by a marked increase in association of SK1 with actin filaments. Catalytically-inactive (CI)- and phosphorylation-defective (PD)-SK1 mutants exhibited reductions in plasma membrane translocation, colocalization with cortical actin filaments, membrane ruffling, and lamellipodia formation, compared with wild-type (WT)-SK1. However, translocation of CI- and PD-SK1 to phagosomes were equivalent to WT-SK1. SK1 exhibited constitutive- and stimulus-enhanced association with actin filaments and F-actin-enriched membrane fractions in both intact macrophages and a novel in vitro assay. In contrast, SK1 bound G-actin only under stimulated conditions. Actin inhibitors disrupted SK1 localization and modulated its activity. Conversely, reduction of SK1 levels or activity via RNA interference or specific chemical inhibition resulted in dysregulation of actin filaments. Thus, the localization and activity of SK1 are coordinately regulated with actin dynamics during macrophage activation.
Cardiac fibroblasts are critical for the maintenance of extracellular matrix deposition and turnover in the normal heart and are key mediators of inflammatory and fibrotic myocardial remodeling in the injured and failing heart. Sphingosine kinase (SphK) activation is a well-recognized determinant of cell fate in cardiac myocytes and other cells, but SphK responses have not previously been studied in cardiac fibroblasts. Initially we found that total SphK activity is over 10-fold higher in cardiac fibroblasts than in adult mouse cardiac myocytes. SphK is composed of two major isoforms, SphK-1 and SphK-2. In fibroblasts isolated from SphK-1 knockout mice, SphK activity was greatly reduced indicating that SphK-1 is the major isoform expressed in these cells. To determine whether SphK regulates cell proliferation and the proinflammatory protein inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), we exposed cultured cardiac fibroblasts to the cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and/or hypoxia. Both hypoxia and IL-1beta alone and in combination enhanced fibroblast SphK activity. In wild-type fibroblasts, hypoxia induced proliferation, but in SphK-1 null fibroblasts this response was blunted even in the presence of serum. In contrast, we found that iNOS expression and NO production were enhanced in SphK-1 null fibroblasts during hypoxia. In wild-type fibroblasts, IL-1beta was only a weak inducer of iNOS and of NO accumulation and hypoxia alone had no significant effect on iNOS activation. However, IL-1beta in combination with hypoxia extensively stimulated iNOS and NO production, and this stimulation was enhanced in SphK-1 null fibroblasts. We conclude that activation of endogenous SphK-1 serves a dual regulatory function: it is required for optimal cardiac fibroblast proliferation but is a negative modulator of proinflammatory responses during hypoxia.
OBJECTIVE: Sphingosine kinase (SphK) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive sphingolipid. SphK is involved in ischemic preconditioning (IPC). To date no studies in genetically altered animals have examined the role of SphK1 in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury and IPC. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wild-type and SphK1 null mouse hearts were subjected to IR (50 min global ischemia and 40 min reperfusion) in a Langendorff apparatus. IPC consisted of 2 min of global ischemia and 2 min of reperfusion for two cycles. At baseline, there were no differences in left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), +/-dP/dtmax, and LV end-diastolic pressure (EDP) between SphK1 mutant and wild-type (WT) mouse hearts. In the mutants, total SphK enzyme activity was reduced by 44% and S1P levels were decreased by 41%. SphK1 null hearts subjected to IR exhibited more cardiac damage compared with WT: LVDP and +/-dP/dtmax decreased, LVEDP increased, and infarct size increased (n=6, P<0.05). Apoptosis was markedly enhanced in SphK1 mutant IR mouse hearts. IPC was cardioprotective in WT hearts, but this protection appeared to be ineffective in SphK1 null hearts. There was no change in infarct size in the IPC+IR group compared to the IR group in the null hearts (50.1+/-5.0% vs 45.0+/-3.8%, n=6, P=NS). IPC remained ineffective in the null hearts even when the index ischemia time was shortened by 10 min. CONCLUSIONS: Deletion of the SphK1 gene sensitizes the myocardium to IR injury and appears to impair the protective effect of IPC. These data provide the first genetic evidence that the SphK1-S1P pathway is a critical mediator of IPC and cell survival.
Lymphocytes require sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-1 to exit lymphoid organs, but the source(s) of extracellular S1P and whether S1P directly promotes egress are unknown. By using mice in which the two kinases that generate S1P were conditionally ablated, we find that plasma S1P is mainly hematopoietic in origin, with erythrocytes a major contributor, whereas lymph S1P is from a distinct radiation-resistant source. Lymphocyte egress from thymus and secondary lymphoid organs was markedly reduced in kinase-deficient mice. Restoration of S1P to plasma rescued egress to blood but not lymph, and the rescue required lymphocyte expression of S1P-receptor-1. Thus, separate sources provide S1P to plasma and lymph to help lymphocytes exit the low-S1P environment of lymphoid organs. Disruption of compartmentalized S1P signaling is a plausible mechanism by which S1P-receptor-1 agonists function as immunosuppressives.
Angiogenesis is critical for development and repair, and is a prominent feature of many pathological conditions. Based on evidence that insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 enhances cell motility and activates sphingosine kinase (SphK) in human endothelial cells, we have investigated whether IGFBP-3 plays a role in promoting angiogenesis. IGFBP-3 potently induced network formation by human endothelial cells on Matrigel. Moreover, it up-regulated proangiogenic genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9. IGFBP-3 even induced membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP), which regulates MMP-2 activation. Decreasing SphK1 expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA), blocked IGFBP-3-induced network formation and inhibited VEGF, MT1-MMP but not IGF-I up-regulation. IGF-I activated SphK, leading to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) formation. The IGF-I effect on SphK activity was blocked by specific inhibitors of IGF-IR, PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The disruption of IGF-I signaling prevented the IGFBP-3 effect on tube formation, SphK activity and VEGF release. Blocking ERK1/2 signaling caused the loss of SphK activation and VEGF and IGF-I up-regulation. Finally, IGFBP-3 dose-dependently stimulated neovessel formation into subcutaneous implants of Matrigel in vivo. Thus, IGFBP-3 positively regulates angiogenesis through involvement of IGF-IR signaling and subsequent SphK/S1P activation.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Extracellular nucleotides act as potent mitogens for renal mesangial cells (MC). In this study we determined whether extracellular nucleotides trigger additional responses in MCs and the mechanisms involved. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: MC migration was measured after nucleotide stimulation in an adapted Boyden-chamber. Sphingosine kinase-1 (SK-1) protein expression was detected by Western blot analysis and mRNA expression quantified by real-time PCR. SK activity was measured by an in vitro kinase assay using sphingosine as substrate. KEY RESULTS: Nucleotide stimulation caused biphasic activation of SK-1, but not SK-2. The first peak occurred after minutes of stimulation and was followed by a second delayed peak after 4-24 h of stimulation. The delayed activation of SK-1 is due to increased SK-1 mRNA steady-state levels and de novo synthesis of SK-1 protein, and depends on PKC and the classical MAPK cascade. To see whether nucleotide-stimulated cell responses require SK-1, we selectively depleted SK-1 from cells by using small-interference RNA (siRNA). MC migration is highly stimulated by ATP and UTP; this is mimicked by exogenously added S1P. Depletion of SK-1 by siRNA drastically reduced the effect of ATP and UTP on cell migration but not on cell proliferation. Furthermore, MCs isolated from SK-1-deficient mice were completely devoid of nucleotide-induced migration. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These data show that extracellular nucleotides besides being mitogenic also trigger MC migration and this cell response critically requires SK-1 activity. Thus, pharmacological intervention of SK-1 may have impacts on situations where MC migration is important such as during inflammatory kidney diseases.
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1), a key sphingolipid metabolic enzyme, in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. METHODS: SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells and C2C12 myotube cells were used to explore the role of SPHK1 in glucose uptake in vitro. KK/Ay type 2 diabetic mice, which were transfected with adenovirus harbouring the human SPHK1 gene by i.v. injection, were used to investigate the glucose-lowering effects of SPHK1 in vivo. RESULTS: The basal glucose uptake and the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in both 7721 cells and C2C12 cells were markedly enhanced when SPHK1 was overexpressed by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer, whereas they were substantially reduced when the expression of SPHK1 was inhibited or the activity of SPHK1 was blocked. Insulin could activate SPHK1 of both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. SPHK1 gene delivery significantly reduced the blood glucose level of KK/Ay diabetic mice, but had no effect on that of normal animals. It also attenuated elevated levels of plasma insulin, NEFA, triacylglycerol, cholesterol and LDL, significantly ameliorated hyperglycaemia-induced injury of liver, heart and kidney, and enhanced phosphorylation of insulin-signalling kinases such as Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta in livers of the diabetic animals. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: SPHK1 is involved in insulin signalling and plays an important role in the regulation of glucose and fat metabolism; adenovirus-mediated SPHK1 gene transfer might provide a novel strategy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Sphingosine kinase (SPHK) has been implicated as an important element in neutrophil responses to diverse stimulatory agents. To get more insight into the role of the type 1 and 2 isoforms of SPHK in neutrophil functions, we made use of the respective SPHK knockout mice. Neutrophils isolated from the bone marrow of these mice showed normal increase of intracellular Ca(2+) when stimulated in vitro by fMLP, platelet-activating factor, the anaphylatoxin C5a, or ATP, and normal migration towards fMLP and C5a. Also, recruitment of neutrophils into the peritoneum towards the chemokines KC and MIP-2 or to LPS, and into the peripheral blood after fMLP injection was similar in SPHK knockout strains and wild-type animals. An in vivo model of bacterial lung infection revealed an accelerated progression of disease in SPHK2 (but not SPHK1) knockout mice as compared to wild-type controls. However, effector functions of SPHK-deficient neutrophils, such as superoxide production, beta-glucuronidase release and their capacity to kill bacteria were unchanged as compared to wild-type cells. To conclude, the data derived from SPHK knockout mice do not support the hypothesis that any of the two lipid kinases plays a crucial role in signalling downstream of various neutrophil stimuli; SPHKs appear not to be essential for neutrophil recruitment and effector functions.
P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ABC-transporter highly expressed in brain capillaries, protects the brain by extruding xenobiotics. However, its overexpression has also been associated with the multidrug resistance phenotype in tumors. Here, we have investigated the regulation of P-gp transport activity by sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK-1) in brain endothelial cells. We first demonstrated that SphK-1 is overexpressed in endothelial cells (EC) isolated from rat brain tumors compared with EC from normal brain. We also provide evidence that the overexpression of SphK-1 in the cerebral EC line RBE4 leads to the up-regulation of P-gp, both at the gene and protein levels, and that this modulation depends on the catalytic activity of SphK-1. Moreover, we determined the effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), the product of SphK-1, on P-gp function. S1P strongly stimulates P-gp transport activity, without modulating its expression. Finally, we found that the S1P-mediated stimulation of P-gp activity is mediated by S1P-1 and S1P-3 receptors at the RBE4 cell surface. Altogether, these results indicate that SphK-1 and its product S1P are involved in the control of P-gp activity in RBE4 cells. Since SphK-1 is overexpressed in EC from brain tumors, these data also suggest that this kinase and its product could contribute to the acquisition and the maintenance of the multidrug resistance phenotype in brain tumor-derived endothelial cells.
OBJECTIVES: Activation of sphingosine kinase (SphK), which has two known isoforms, is responsible for the synthesis of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a cell survival factor. We tested the following hypotheses: 1] cardiac myocytes null for the SphK1 gene are more vulnerable to the stress of hypoxia+glucose deprivation; 2] the monoganglioside GM-1, which activates SphK via protein kinase C epsilon, is ineffective in SphK1-null myocytes; 3] S1P generated by SphK activation requires cellular export to be cardioprotective. METHODS: We cultured adult mouse cardiac myocytes from wildtype and SphK1-null mice (deletion of exons 3-6) and measured cell viability by trypan blue exclusion. RESULTS: In wildtype adult mouse cardiomyocytes subjected to 4 h of hypoxic stress+glucose deprivation, cell viability was significantly higher than in SphK1-null cardiomyocytes. SphK1-null cells also displayed more mitochondrial cytochrome C release. Cell death induced by hypoxia+glucose deprivation was substantially prevented by pretreatment with exogenous S1P in both wildtype and SphK1-null myocytes, but S1P was effective at a lower concentration in wildtype cells. Hence, the absence of the Sphk1 gene did not affect receptor coupling or downstream signal transduction. Pretreatment for 1 h with 1 microM of the monoganglioside GM-1 increased survival in wildtype cells, but not in SphK1-null myocytes. Thus, activation of SphK1 by GM-1 leads to cell survival. In wildtype cells, enhanced survival produced by GM-1 was abrogated by pretreatment either with 300 nM of the S1P(1) receptor-selective antagonist VPC23019 or with 100 ng/ml of pertussis toxin for 16 h before exposure to hypoxia+glucose deprivation. CONCLUSION: As the effect of GM-1 is blocked both at the receptor and the G-protein (Gi) levels, we conclude that S1P generated by GM-1 treatment must be exported from the cell and acts in a paracrine or autocrine manner to couple with its cognate receptor.
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has been shown to regulate numerous and diverse cell functions, including smooth muscle contraction. Here we assessed the role of S1P/Sphingosine kinase (SPK) pathway in the regulation of bronchial tone. Our objective was to determine, using an integrated pharmacologic and molecular approach, (1) the role of S1P as endogenous modulator of the bronchial tone, and (2) the linkage between S1P pathway and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We evaluated S1P effects on isolated bronchi and whole lungs, harvested from Balb/c mice sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) versus vehicle-treated mice, by measuring bronchial reactivity and lung resistance. We found that S1P administration on nonsensitized mouse bronchi does not cause any direct effect on bronchial tone, while a significant increase in Ach-induced contraction occurs after S1P challenge. Conversely, in OVA-sensitized mice S1P/SPK pathway triggers airway hyperesponsiveness. Indeed, S1P causes a dose-dependent contraction of isolated bronchi. Similarly, in the whole lung system S1P increased airway resistance only in OVA-sensitized mice. The action on bronchi of S1P is coupled to an enhanced expression of SPK(1) and SPK(2) as well as of S1P(2) and S1P(3) receptors. In these experiments the key role for S1P/SPK in hyperreactivity has been confirmed by pharmacologic modulation of SPKs. S1P/SPK pathway does not seem to play a major role in physiologic conditions, while it may become critical in pathologic conditions. These results open new windows for therapeutic strategies in diseases like asthma.
Sphingosine kinase (Sphk) enzymes are important in intracellular sphingolipid metabolism as well as in the biosynthesis of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), an extracellular lipid mediator. Here, we show that Sphk1 is expressed and is required for small intestinal tumor cell proliferation in Apc Min/+ mice. Adenoma size but not incidence was dramatically reduced in Apc Min/+ Sphk(-/-) mice. Concomitantly, epithelial cell proliferation in the polyps was significantly attenuated, suggesting that Sphk1 regulates adenoma progression. Although the S1P receptors (S1P1R, S1P2R, and S1P3R) are expressed, polyp incidence or size was unaltered in Apc Min/+ S1p2r(-/-), Apc Min/+ S1p3r(-/-), and Apc Min/+ S1p1r(+/-) bigenic mice. These data suggest that extracellular S1P signaling via its receptors is not involved in adenoma cell proliferation. Interestingly, tissue sphingosine content was elevated in the adenomas of Apc Min/+ Sphk1(-/-) mice, whereas S1P levels were not significantly altered. Concomitantly, epithelial cell proliferation and the expression of the G1/S cell cycle regulator CDK4 and c-myc were diminished in the polyps of Apc Min/+ Sphk1(-/-) mice. In rat intestinal epithelial (RIE) cells in vitro, Sphk1 overexpression enhanced cell cycle traverse at the G1/S boundary. In addition, RIE cells treated with sphingosine but not C6-ceramide exhibited reduced cell proliferation, reduced retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation, and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) expression. Our findings suggest that Sphk1 plays a critical role in intestinal tumor cell proliferation and that inhibitors of Sphk1 may be useful in the control of intestinal cancer.
FTY720, a potent immunomodulatory drug in phase 2/3 clinical trials, induces rapid and reversible sequestration of lymphocytes into secondary lymphoid organs, thereby preventing their migration to sites of inflammation. As prerequisite for its function, phosphorylation of FTY720 to yield a potent agonist of the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor S1P(1) is required in vivo, catalyzed by an as-yet-unknown kinase. Here, we report on the generation of sphingosine kinase 2 (SPHK2) knockout mice and demonstrate that this enzyme is essential for FTY720 phosphate formation in vivo. Consequently, administration of FTY720 does not induce lymphopenia in SPHK2-deficient mice. After direct dosage of FTY720 phosphate, lymphopenia is only transient in this strain, indicating that SPHK2 is constantly required to maintain FTY720 phosphate levels in vivo.
Engagement of the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI) on mast cells results in the production and secretion of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid metabolite present in the lungs of allergen-challenged asthmatics. Herein we report that two isoforms of sphingosine kinase (SphK1 and SphK2) are expressed and activated upon FcepsilonRI engagement of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC). Fyn kinase is required for FcepsilonRI coupling to SphK1 and -2 and for subsequent S1P production. Normal activation of SphK1 and -2 was restored by expression of wild type Fyn but only partly with a kinase-defective Fyn, indicating that induction of SphK1 and SphK2 depended on both catalytic and noncatalytic properties of Fyn. Downstream of Fyn, the requirements for SphK1 activation differed from that of SphK2. Whereas SphK1 was considerably dependent on the adapter Grb2-associated binder 2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase, SphK2 showed minimal dependence on these molecules. Fyn-deficient BMMC were defective in chemotaxis and, as previously reported, in degranulation. These functional responses were partly reconstituted by the addition of exogenous S1P to FcepsilonRI-stimulated cells. Taken together with our previous study, which demonstrated delayed SphK activation in Lyn-deficient BMMC, we propose a cooperative role between Fyn and Lyn kinases in the activation of SphKs, which contributes to mast cell responses.
Sphingosine kinases catalyze the production of the bioactive lipid molecule sphingosine 1-phosphate. Mice have two isoforms of sphingosine kinase type 1, SPHK1a and SPHK1b. In addition to the previously reported difference in their enzyme activities, we have found that these isoforms differ in several enzymatic characteristics. First, SPHK1b is unstable, whereas SPHK1a is highly stable. Degradation of SPHK1b occurs at the membrane and is inhibited by a proteasome inhibitor. Second, only SPHK1b exhibits abnormal mobility on SDS-PAGE, probably due to its SDS-resistant structure. Third, SPHK1a and SPHK1b are predominantly detected in the soluble and membrane fractions, respectively, when their degradation is inhibited. Fourth, only SPHK1b is modified with lipid, on its unique Cys residues (Cys-4 and Cys-5). Site-directed mutagenesis at these Cys residues resulted in increased sphingosine kinase activity, suggesting that the modification is inhibitory to the enzyme. Finally, SPHK1b tends to form homo-oligomers, whereas most SPHK1a is presented as monomers. We have also determined that the lipid modification of SPHK1b is involved in its homo-oligomerization. Thus, although these two proteins differ only in a few N-terminal amino acid residues, their enzymatic traits are extremely different.
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a biologically active sphingolipid metabolite that exerts important effects on numerous cellular events via cell surface receptors, S1P(1-5). S1P influences differentiation, proliferation, and migration during vascular development. However, the effects of S1P signaling on early cardiac development are not well understood. To address this issue, we examined the expression of S1P regulatory enzymes and S1P receptors during cardiac development. We observed that enzymes that regulate S1P levels, sphingosine kinase and sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphatase, are expressed in the developing heart. In addition, RT-PCR revealed that four of the five known S1P receptors (S1P(1-4)) are also expressed in the developing heart. Next, effects of altered S1P levels on whole embryo and atrioventricular (AV) canal cultures were investigated. We demonstrate that inactivation of the S1P producing enzyme, sphingosine kinase, leads to cell death in cardiac tissue which is rescued by exogenous S1P treatment. Other experiments reveal that increased S1P concentration prevents alterations in cell morphology that are required for cell migration. This effect results in reduced cell migration and inhibited mesenchymal cell formation in AV canal cushion tissue. These data indicate that S1P, locally maintained within a specific concentration range, is an important and necessary component of early heart development.
Previous studies have shown that the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to block a Ca(2+) flux is an important step in its capacity to halt phagosome maturation. This affect on Ca(2+) release results from M. tuberculosis inhibition of sphingosine kinase (SPK) activity. However, these studies did not address the potential role of SPK and Ca(2+) in other aspects of macrophage activation including production of proinflammatory mediators. We previously showed that nonpathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis and to a lesser extent pathogenic Mycobacterium avium, activate Ca(2+)-dependent calmodulin/calmodulin kinase and MAPK pathways in murine macrophages leading to TNF-alpha production. However, whether SPK functions in promoting MAPK activation upon mycobacterial infection was not defined in these studies. In the present work we found that SPK is required for ERK1/2 activation in murine macrophages infected with either M. avium or M. smegmatis. Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) and conventional protein kinase C (cPKC) were also important for ERK1/2 activation. Moreover, there was increased activation of cPKC and PI3K in macrophages infected with M. smegmatis compared with M. avium. This cPKC and PI3K activation was dependent on SPK and PI-PLC. Finally, in macrophages infected with M. smegmatis compared with M. avium, we observed enhanced secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6, RANTES, and G-CSF and found production of these inflammatory mediators to be dependent on SPK, PI-PLC, cPKC, and PI3K. These studies are the first to show that the macrophage proinflammatory response following a mycobacterial infection is regulated by SPK/PI-PLC/PKC activation of ERK1/2 and PI3K pathways.
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), produced by Sphks (sphingosine kinases), is a multifunctional lipid mediator that regulates immune cell trafficking and vascular development. Mammals maintain a large concentration gradient of S1P between vascular and extravascular compartments. Mechanisms by which S1P is released from cells and concentrated in the plasma are poorly understood. We recently demonstrated [Ancellin, Colmont, Su, Li, Mittereder, Chae, Stefansson, Liau and Hla (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 6667-6675] that Sphk1 activity is constitutively secreted by vascular endothelial cells. In the present study, we show that among the five Sphk isoforms expressed in endothelial cells, the Sphk-1a isoform is selectively secreted in HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney cells) and human umbilical-vein endothelial cells. In sharp contrast, Sphk2 is not secreted. The exported Sphk-1a isoform is enzymatically active and produced sufficient S1P to induce S1P receptor internalization. Wild-type mouse plasma contains significant Sphk activity (179 pmol x min(-1) x g(-1)). In contrast, Sphk1-/- mouse plasma has undetectable Sphk activity and approx. 65% reduction in S1P levels. Moreover, human plasma contains enzymatically active Sphk1 (46 pmol x min(-1) x g(-1)). These results suggest that export of Sphk-1a occurs under physiological conditions and may contribute to the establishment of the vascular S1P gradient.
Sphingosine-1-phosophate, generated from the phosphorylation of sphingosine by sphingosine kinase enzymes, is suggested to function as an intracellular second messenger for inflammatory mediators, including formyl peptide, C5a, and Fc. More recently, a role for sphingosine kinases during inflammation has also been proposed. Here we show that sphingosine kinase 1 knockout mice exhibit normal inflammatory cell recruitment during thioglycollate-induced peritonitis and that sphingosine kinase 1-null neutrophils respond normally to formyl peptide. In the collagen-induced arthritis model of rheumatoid arthritis, sphingosine kinase 1 knockout mice developed arthritis with normal incidence and severity. Our findings show that sphingosine kinase 1 is dispensable for inflammatory responses and support the need for more extensive studies of sphingosine kinases in inflammation.
Sphingosine kinase-1 (SK1) is a key enzyme catalyzing the phosphorylation of sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Recent studies suggest that SK1, and its product S1P, regulate diverse biological functions, including cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. S1P may also play an important role in cardiac development and ischemic preconditioning, but the mechanism underlying these effects is not known. Using a yeast 2-hybrid screen with SK1 as bait and a cardiac cDNA library to identify novel proteins involved in regulating SK1 activity in cardiomyocytes, we identified the LIM-only factor FHL2 (SLIM3) as a SK1-interacting protein in both yeast and mammalian cells. FHL2, but not FHL1 or FHL3, interacted with SK1, and FHL2 colocalized with SK1 in the cytoplasm. The interaction sites with SK1 consisted of at least 4 LIM domains in FHL2, whereas the C-terminal portion of SK1 mediates the binding of FHL2 in SK1. Overexpression of FHL2 attenuated the activity and antiapoptotic effects of SK1. Indeed, endothelin-1, which is a potent survival factor in cardiomyocytes, inhibited FHL2-SK1 association and increased SK1 activity. These findings indicate that FHL2 is a novel inhibitor of SK1 activity in cardiomyocytes and suggest that targeting FHL2 for inhibition may prevent myocardial apoptosis through activation of SK1.
Sphingolipids are important components of cell structure and cell signaling. Both external and internal stimuli can alter levels of cellular sphingolipids by regulating enzyme activities associated with sphingolipid metabolism. Fumonisin B1, mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides, is a reportedly specific inhibitor of ceramide synthase. In order to test our hypothesis whether ceramide synthase inhibition by fumonisin B1 alters other sphingolipid-metabolizing enzymes, we investigated the changes in free sphingoid bases and sphingomyelin (SM) and activities of key enzymes for their metabolism, sphingomyelinase (SMase), serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), and sphingosine kinase (SPHK) in mouse liver. The hepatic free sphingoid bases increased significantly following five daily treatments with fumonisin B1 in mice. The activity of acidic SMase was enhanced by fumonisin B1, accompanied with a decrease in liver SM content. The expression and activities of SPT and SPHK1 in liver increased significantly following fumonisin B1 treatment. Another hepatotoxicant acetaminophen caused liver regeneration similar to fumonisin B1 but did not produce similar effects on liver sphingolipid-metabolizing enzymes, suggesting that activation of sphingolipid metabolism was not a consequence of hepatocyte regeneration. Data suggest that ceramide synthase inhibition by fumonisin B1 treatment stimulates sphingolipid-metabolizing systems to maintain a balance of cellular sphingolipids.
Antisense transcription (transcription from the opposite strand to a protein-coding or sense strand) has been ascribed roles in gene regulation involving degradation of the corresponding sense transcripts (RNA interference), as well as gene silencing at the chromatin level. Global transcriptome analysis provides evidence that a large proportion of the genome can produce transcripts from both strands, and that antisense transcripts commonly link neighboring "genes" in complex loci into chains of linked transcriptional units. Expression profiling reveals frequent concordant regulation of sense/antisense pairs. We present experimental evidence that perturbation of an antisense RNA can alter the expression of sense messenger RNAs, suggesting that antisense transcription contributes to control of transcriptional outputs in mammals.
This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and polyadenylation. There are 16,247 new mouse protein-coding transcripts, including 5154 encoding previously unidentified proteins. Genomic mapping of the transcriptome reveals transcriptional forests, with overlapping transcription on both strands, separated by deserts in which few transcripts are observed. The data provide a comprehensive platform for the comparative analysis of mammalian transcriptional regulation in differentiation and development.