Abcd3 | GeneID:19299 | Mus musculus
[ ] NCBI Entrez Gene
|Gene ID||19299||Official Symbol||Abcd3|
|Synonyms||AI313901; AU018866; AW146054; PMP68; PMP70; Pxmp1|
|Full Name||ATP-binding cassette, sub-family D (ALD), member 3|
|Description||ATP-binding cassette, sub-family D (ALD), member 3|
|Chromosome||3 G-H1|3 56.6 cM|
|Also Known As||ATP-binding cassette, sub-family D, member 3; peroxisomal membrane protein 1; peroxisomal membrane protein, 70 kDa|
|Summary||The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the ALD subfamily, which is involved in peroxisomal import of fatty acids and/or fatty acyl-CoAs in the organelle. All known peroxisomal ABC transporters are half transporters which require a partner half transporter molecule to form a functional homodimeric or heterodimeric transporter. This peroxisomal membrane protein likely plays an important role in peroxisome biogenesis. Mutations have been associated with some forms of Zellweger syndrome, a heterogeneous group of peroxisome assembly disorders. [provided by RefSeq]|
Orthologs and Paralogs
|GeneID:479939||ABCD3||XP_537064.2||Canis lupus familiaris|
[ ] Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies
|1||abcam||ab28499||PMP70 antibody (Biotin) (ab28499); Rabbit polyclonal to PMP70 - Peroxisomal Membrane Marker (Biotin)|
|2||abcam||ab3421||PMP70 antibody - Peroxisomal Membrane Marker (ab3421); Rabbit polyclonal to PMP70 - Peroxisomal Membrane Marker|
|3||sigma||P0497||Anti-PMP70 antibody produced in rabbit ;|
|4||sigma||P0090||Anti-PMP70−Atto 488 antibody produced in rabbit ;|
|GO:0016021||Component||integral to membrane|
|GO:0005743||Component||mitochondrial inner membrane|
MicroRNA and Targets
[ ] MicroRNA Sequences and Transcript Targets from miRBase at Sanger
|RNA Target||miRNA #||mat miRNA||Mature miRNA Sequence|
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A systematic analysis to examine the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha agonists on the expression levels of all the nutrient/drug plasma-membrane transporters in the mouse small intestine was performed. Transporter mRNAs that were induced or repressed by two independent PPARalpha-specific agonists were identified by a genome-wide microarray method, and the changes were confirmed by real-time PCR using RNA isolated from the intestines and livers of wild-type and PPARalpha-null mice. Expression levels of seven nutrient/drug transporters (Abcd3, Octn2/Slc22a5, FATP2/Slc27a2, Slc22a21, Mct13/Slc16a13, Slc23a1 and Bcrp/Abcg2) in the intestine were up-regulated and the expression level of one (Mrp1/Abcc1) was down-regulated by PPARalpha; although the previously report that the H(+)/peptide co-transporter 1 (Pept1) is up-regulated by PPARalpha was not replicated in our study. We propose that the transport processes can be coordinately regulated with intracellular metabolism by nutrient nuclear receptors.
IMAC in combination with mass spectrometry is a promising approach for global analysis of protein phosphorylation. Nevertheless this approach suffers from two shortcomings: inadequate efficiency of IMAC and poor fragmentation of phosphopeptides in the mass spectrometer. Here we report optimization of the IMAC procedure using (32)P-labeled tryptic peptides and development of MS/MS/MS (MS3) for identifying phosphopeptide sequences and phosphorylation sites. The improved IMAC method allowed recovery of phosphorylated tryptic peptides up to approximately 77% with only minor retention of unphosphorylated peptides. MS3 led to efficient fragmentation of the peptide backbone in phosphopeptides for sequence assignment. Proteomics of mitochondrial phosphoproteins using the resulting IMAC protocol and MS3 revealed 84 phosphorylation sites in 62 proteins, most of which have not been reported before. These results revealed diverse phosphorylation pathways involved in the regulation of mitochondrial functions. Integration of the optimized batchwise IMAC protocol with MS3 offers a relatively simple and more efficient approach for proteomics of protein phosphorylation.
Acetylation of proteins on lysine residues is a dynamic posttranslational modification that is known to play a key role in regulating transcription and other DNA-dependent nuclear processes. However, the extent of this modification in diverse cellular proteins remains largely unknown, presenting a major bottleneck for lysine-acetylation biology. Here we report the first proteomic survey of this modification, identifying 388 acetylation sites in 195 proteins among proteins derived from HeLa cells and mouse liver mitochondria. In addition to regulators of chromatin-based cellular processes, nonnuclear localized proteins with diverse functions were identified. Most strikingly, acetyllysine was found in more than 20% of mitochondrial proteins, including many longevity regulators and metabolism enzymes. Our study reveals previously unappreciated roles for lysine acetylation in the regulation of diverse cellular pathways outside of the nucleus. The combined data sets offer a rich source for further characterization of the contribution of this modification to cellular physiology and human diseases.
Antisense transcription (transcription from the opposite strand to a protein-coding or sense strand) has been ascribed roles in gene regulation involving degradation of the corresponding sense transcripts (RNA interference), as well as gene silencing at the chromatin level. Global transcriptome analysis provides evidence that a large proportion of the genome can produce transcripts from both strands, and that antisense transcripts commonly link neighboring "genes" in complex loci into chains of linked transcriptional units. Expression profiling reveals frequent concordant regulation of sense/antisense pairs. We present experimental evidence that perturbation of an antisense RNA can alter the expression of sense messenger RNAs, suggesting that antisense transcription contributes to control of transcriptional outputs in mammals.
This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and polyadenylation. There are 16,247 new mouse protein-coding transcripts, including 5154 encoding previously unidentified proteins. Genomic mapping of the transcriptome reveals transcriptional forests, with overlapping transcription on both strands, separated by deserts in which few transcripts are observed. The data provide a comprehensive platform for the comparative analysis of mammalian transcriptional regulation in differentiation and development.
ALDP, ALDPR, PMP70 and PMP70R are half ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters of the mammalian peroxisomal membrane. By analogy with other members of this family, it is assumed that peroxisomal ABC transporters must dimerize to become functional units. However, not much is known regarding the type of dimers (i.e., homodimers and/or heterodimers) that are formed in vivo under normal expression conditions. In this work, we have characterized the quaternary structure of mouse liver PMP70 and ALDP. The PMP70 protein complex was purified to apparent homogeneity using a two-step purification protocol. The ALDP-containing protein complex was characterized by preparative immunoprecipitation experiments. In both cases, no evidence for the existence of heteromeric interactions or for the presence of accessory proteins in these ABC transporter protein complexes could be obtained. Our data indicate that the majority (if not all) of mouse liver PMP70 and ALDP are homomeric proteins.
It is becoming increasingly clear that alternative splicing enables the complex development and homeostasis of higher organisms. To gain a better understanding of how splicing contributes to regulatory pathways, we have developed an alternative splicing library approach for the identification of alternatively spliced exons and their flanking regions by alternative splicing sequence enriched tags sequencing. Here, we have applied our approach to mouse melan-c melanocyte and B16-F10Y melanoma cell lines, in which 5,401 genes were found to be alternatively spliced. These genes include those encoding important regulatory factors such as cyclin D2, Ilk, MAPK12, MAPK14, RAB4, melastatin 1 and previously unidentified splicing events for 436 genes. Real-time PCR further identified cell line-specific exons for Tmc6, Abi1, Sorbs1, Ndel1 and Snx16. Thus, the ASL approach proved effective in identifying splicing events, which suggest that alternative splicing is important in melanoma development.
Subcellular proteomics, which includes isolation of subcellular components prior to a proteomic analysis, is advantageous not only in characterizing large macro-molecular complexes such as organelles but also in elucidating mechanisms of protein transport and organelle biosynthesis. Because of the high sensitivity achieved by the present proteomics technology, the purity of samples to be analyzed is important for the interpretation of the results obtained. In the present study, peroxisomes isolated from rat liver by usual cell fractionation were further purified by immunoisolation using a specific antibody raised against a peroxisomal membrane protein, PMP70. The isolated peroxisomes were analyzed by SDS-PAGE combined with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Altogether 34 known peroxisomal proteins were identified in addition to several mitochondrial and microsomal proteins. Some of the latter may reside in the peroxisomes as well. Analysis of membrane fractions identified all known peroxins except for Pex7. Two new peroxisomal proteins of unknown function were of high abundance. One is a bi-functional protein consisting of an aminoglycoside phosphotransferase-domain and an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase domain. The other is a newly identified peroxisome-specific isoform of Lon protease, an ATP-dependent protease with chaperone-like activity. The peroxisomal localization of the protein was confirmed by immunological techniques. The peroxisome-type Lon protease, which is distinct from the mitochondrial isoform, may play an important role in the peroxisomal biogenesis.
Peroxisomal membrane protein 70 (PMP70) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) were examined in the spinal cords of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing a human mutant SOD1 protein (G93A) and their age-matched controls at 8, 20 and 32 weeks by immunohistochemistry. At pre-symptomatic 20 weeks and symptomatic 32 weeks, PMP70 was reduced in the cytoplasm of motor neurons in Tg animals and increased in glial cells in anterior horn at late age. SOD1 showed a progressive increase of dot-like deposits in the neuropil of anterior horn of Tg mice, and a late decrease of signal intensity in the white matter and motor neurons at 32 weeks. It is conceivable that reduction of PMP70 might underlie decrease in peroxisomal functions and increase in oxidative stress that is well documented in this animal model.
Mitochondria are tailored to meet the metabolic and signaling needs of each cell. To explore its molecular composition, we performed a proteomic survey of mitochondria from mouse brain, heart, kidney, and liver and combined the results with existing gene annotations to produce a list of 591 mitochondrial proteins, including 163 proteins not previously associated with this organelle. The protein expression data were largely concordant with large-scale surveys of RNA abundance and both measures indicate tissue-specific differences in organelle composition. RNA expression profiles across tissues revealed networks of mitochondrial genes that share functional and regulatory mechanisms. We also determined a larger "neighborhood" of genes whose expression is closely correlated to the mitochondrial genes. The combined analysis identifies specific genes of biological interest, such as candidates for mtDNA repair enzymes, offers new insights into the biogenesis and ancestry of mammalian mitochondria, and provides a framework for understanding the organelle's contribution to human disease.
Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata is a human autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal, eye and brain abnormalities. The disorder is caused by mutations in the PEX7 gene, which encodes the receptor for a class of peroxisomal matrix enzymes. We describe the generation and characterization of a Pex7 mouse knockout (Pex7(-/-)). Pex7(-/-) mice are born severely hypotonic and have a growth impairment. Mortality in Pex7(-/-) mice is highest in the perinatal period although some Pex7(-/-) mice survived beyond 18 months. Biochemically Pex7(-/-) mice display the abnormalities related to a Pex7 deficiency, i.e. a severe depletion of plasmalogens, impaired alpha-oxidation of phytanic acid and impaired beta-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids. In the intermediate zone of the developing cerebral cortex Pex7(-/-) mice have an increase in neuronal density. In vivo neuronal birthdating revealed that Pex7(-/-) mice have a delay in neuronal migration. Analysis of bone ossification in newborn Pex7(-/-) mice revealed a defect in ossification of distal bone elements of the limbs as well as parts of the skull and vertebrae. These findings demonstrate that Pex7 knockout mice provide an important model to study the role of peroxisomal functioning in the pathogenesis of the human disorder.
Mitochondria play a crucial role in cellular homeostasis, which justifies the increasing interest in mapping the different components of these organelles. Here we have focused our study on the identification of proteins of the mitochondrial inner membrane (MIM). This membrane is of particular interest because, besides the well known components of the respiratory chain complexes, it contains several ion channels and many carrier proteins that certainly play a key role in mitochondrial function and, therefore, deserve to be identified at the molecular level. To achieve this goal we have used a novel approach combining the use of highly purified mouse liver mitochondrial inner membranes, extraction of membrane proteins with organic acid, and two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. This procedure allowed us to identify 182 proteins that are involved in several biochemical processes, such as the electron transport machinery, the protein import machinery, protein synthesis, lipid metabolism, and ion or substrate transport. The full range of isoelectric point (3.9-12.5), molecular mass (6-527 kDa), and hydrophobicity values (up to 16 transmembrane predicted domains) were represented. In addition, of the 182 proteins found, 20 were unknown or had never previously been associated with the MIM. Overexpression of some of these proteins in mammalian cells confirmed their mitochondrial localization and resulted in severe remodeling of the mitochondrial network. This study provides the first proteome of the MIM and provides a basis for a more detailed study of the newly characterized proteins of this membrane.
The National Institutes of Health Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) Program is a multiinstitutional effort to identify and sequence a cDNA clone containing a complete ORF for each human and mouse gene. ESTs were generated from libraries enriched for full-length cDNAs and analyzed to identify candidate full-ORF clones, which then were sequenced to high accuracy. The MGC has currently sequenced and verified the full ORF for a nonredundant set of >9,000 human and >6,000 mouse genes. Candidate full-ORF clones for an additional 7,800 human and 3,500 mouse genes also have been identified. All MGC sequences and clones are available without restriction through public databases and clone distribution networks (see http:mgc.nci.nih.gov).
Only a small proportion of the mouse genome is transcribed into mature messenger RNA transcripts. There is an international collaborative effort to identify all full-length mRNA transcripts from the mouse, and to ensure that each is represented in a physical collection of clones. Here we report the manual annotation of 60,770 full-length mouse complementary DNA sequences. These are clustered into 33,409 'transcriptional units', contributing 90.1% of a newly established mouse transcriptome database. Of these transcriptional units, 4,258 are new protein-coding and 11,665 are new non-coding messages, indicating that non-coding RNA is a major component of the transcriptome. 41% of all transcriptional units showed evidence of alternative splicing. In protein-coding transcripts, 79% of splice variations altered the protein product. Whole-transcriptome analyses resulted in the identification of 2,431 sense-antisense pairs. The present work, completely supported by physical clones, provides the most comprehensive survey of a mammalian transcriptome so far, and is a valuable resource for functional genomics.
The RIKEN Mouse Gene Encyclopaedia Project, a systematic approach to determining the full coding potential of the mouse genome, involves collection and sequencing of full-length complementary DNAs and physical mapping of the corresponding genes to the mouse genome. We organized an international functional annotation meeting (FANTOM) to annotate the first 21,076 cDNAs to be analysed in this project. Here we describe the first RIKEN clone collection, which is one of the largest described for any organism. Analysis of these cDNAs extends known gene families and identifies new ones.
Paralemmin is a protein implicated in plasma membrane dynamics. Here we describe the identification of two new paralemmin-related proteins. A partial paralemmin homolog, palmdelphin, is predominantly cytosolic, unlike paralemmin which is lipid-anchored to the plasma membrane through a C-terminal CaaX motif. We have mapped the mouse palmdelphin gene to distal chromosome 3 between Amy2 and Abcd3, in a region homologous to human chromosome 1p22-p21 where the human palmdelphin gene is located. We have also identified a second paralemmin isoform, paralemmin-2. It is expressed from a gene on human chromosome 9q31-q33 which ends only 33 kb upstream of the gene encoding the protein kinase A-binding protein,AKAP2/AKAP-KL. The closely adjacent paralemmin-2 and AKAP2 genes are functionally linked in a very unusual manner. Chimeric mRNAs are expressed, apparently by RNA readthrough and differential splicing, that encode natural fusion proteins in which either the N-terminal coiled-coil region or nearly the complete sequence of paralemmin-2 except its C-terminal CaaX motif is fused to AKAP2/AKAP-KL. The N-terminal coiled-coil region is conserved in paralemmin-1, paralemmin-2/AKAP2, palmdelphin and a fourth, uncharacterized gene, suggesting that it is a modular functional domain.
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) genes encode a family of transport proteins known to be involved in a number of human genetic diseases. In this study, we characterized the ABC superfamily in Mus musculus through in silico gene identification and mapping and phylogenetic analysis of mouse and human ABC genes. By querying dbEST with amino acid sequences from the conserved ATP-binding domains, we identified and partially sequenced 18 new mouse ABC genes, bringing the total number of mouse ABC genes to 34. Twelve of the new ABC genes were mapped in the mouse genome to the X chromosome and to 10 of the 19 autosomes. Phylogenetic relationships of mouse and human ABC genes were examined with maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining analyses that demonstrated that mouse and human ABC orthologs are more closely related than are mouse paralogs. The mouse ABC genes could be grouped into the seven previously described human ABC subfamilies. Three mouse ABC genes mapped to regions implicated in cholesterol gallstone susceptibility.
The RIKEN high-throughput 384-format sequencing pipeline (RISA system) including a 384-multicapillary sequencer (the so-called RISA sequencer) was developed for the RIKEN mouse encyclopedia project. The RISA system consists of colony picking, template preparation, sequencing reaction, and the sequencing process. A novel high-throughput 384-format capillary sequencer system (RISA sequencer system) was developed for the sequencing process. This system consists of a 384-multicapillary auto sequencer (RISA sequencer), a 384-multicapillary array assembler (CAS), and a 384-multicapillary casting device. The RISA sequencer can simultaneously analyze 384 independent sequencing products. The optical system is a scanning system chosen after careful comparison with an image detection system for the simultaneous detection of the 384-capillary array. This scanning system can be used with any fluorescent-labeled sequencing reaction (chain termination reaction), including transcriptional sequencing based on RNA polymerase, which was originally developed by us, and cycle sequencing based on thermostable DNA polymerase. For long-read sequencing, 380 out of 384 sequences (99.2%) were successfully analyzed and the average read length, with more than 99% accuracy, was 654.4 bp. A single RISA sequencer can analyze 216 kb with >99% accuracy in 2.7 h (90 kb/h). For short-read sequencing to cluster the 3' end and 5' end sequencing by reading 350 bp, 384 samples can be analyzed in 1.5 h. We have also developed a RISA inoculator, RISA filtrator and densitometer, RISA plasmid preparator which can handle throughput of 40,000 samples in 17.5 h, and a high-throughput RISA thermal cycler which has four 384-well sites. The combination of these technologies allowed us to construct the RISA system consisting of 16 RISA sequencers, which can process 50,000 DNA samples per day. One haploid genome shotgun sequence of a higher organism, such as human, mouse, rat, domestic animals, and plants, can be revealed by seven RISA systems within one month.
In the effort to prepare the mouse full-length cDNA encyclopedia, we previously developed several techniques to prepare and select full-length cDNAs. To increase the number of different cDNAs, we introduce here a strategy to prepare normalized and subtracted cDNA libraries in a single step. The method is based on hybridization of the first-strand, full-length cDNA with several RNA drivers, including starting mRNA as the normalizing driver and run-off transcripts from minilibraries containing highly expressed genes, rearrayed clones, and previously sequenced cDNAs as subtracting drivers. Our method keeps the proportion of full-length cDNAs in the subtracted/normalized library high. Moreover, our method dramatically enhances the discovery of new genes as compared to results obtained by using standard, full-length cDNA libraries. This procedure can be extended to the preparation of full-length cDNA encyclopedias from other organisms.
cDNA microarray technology has been increasingly used to monitor global gene expression patterns in various tissues and cell types. However, applications to mammalian development have been hampered by the lack of appropriate cDNA collections, particularly for early developmental stages. To overcome this problem, a PCR-based cDNA library construction method was used to derive 52,374 expressed sequence tags from pre- and peri-implantation embryos, embryonic day (E) 12.5 female gonad/mesonephros, and newborn ovary. From these cDNA collections, a microarray representing 15,264 unique genes (78% novel and 22% known) was assembled. In initial applications, the divergence of placental and embryonic gene expression profiles was assessed. At stage E12.5 of development, based on triplicate experiments, 720 genes (6.5%) displayed statistically significant differences in expression between placenta and embryo. Among 289 more highly expressed in placenta, 61 placenta-specific genes encoded, for example, a novel prolactin-like protein. The number of genes highly expressed (and frequently specific) for placenta has thereby been increased 5-fold over the total previously reported, illustrating the potential of the microarrays for tissue-specific gene discovery and analysis of mammalian developmental programs.
Little is known about gene action in the preimplantation events that initiate mammalian development. Based on cDNA collections made from each stage from egg to blastocyst, 25438 3'-ESTs were derived, and represent 9718 genes, half of them novel. Thus, a considerable fraction of mammalian genes is dedicated to embryonic expression. This study reveals profound changes in gene expression that include the transient induction of transcripts at each stage. These results raise the possibility that development is driven by the action of a series of stage-specific expressed genes. The new genes, 798 of them placed on the mouse genetic map, provide entry points for analyses of human and mouse developmental disorders.
Mammalian peroxisomal proteins adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), adrenoleukodystrophy-related protein (ALDRP), and 70-kDa peroxisomal protein (PMP70) belong to the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Unlike many ABC transporters that are single functional proteins with two related halves, ALDP, ALDRP, and PMP70 have the structure of ABC half-transporters. The dysfunction of ALDP is responsible for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), a neurodegenerative disorder in which saturated very long-chain fatty acids accumulate because of their impaired peroxisomal beta-oxidation. No disease has so far been associated with mutations of adrenoleukodystrophy-related or PMP70 genes. It has been proposed that peroxisomal ABC transporters need to dimerize to exert import functions. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we show that homo- as well as heterodimerization occur between the carboxyl-terminal halves of ALDP, ALDRP, and PMP70. Two X-ALD disease mutations located in the carboxyl-terminal half of ALDP affect both homo- and heterodimerization of ALDP. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated the homodimerization of ALDP, the heterodimerization of ALDP with PMP70 or ALDRP, and the heterodimerization of ALDRP with PMP70. These results provide the first evidence of both homo- and heterodimerization of mammalian ABC half-transporters and suggest that the loss of ALDP dimerization plays a role in X-ALD pathogenesis.
Four ATP-binding cassette (ABC) half-transporters have been identified in mammalian peroxisomes: adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), adrenoleukodystrophy-related protein (ALDRP), 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70) and PMP70-related protein (P70R). Inherited defects in ALDP cause the neurodegenerative disorder X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). By comparative Northern blot analyses we found each of the four murine peroxisomal ABC transporter mRNA species at maximum abundance only in a few tissues, which differed for each family member. The four genes were also regulated differentially during mouse brain development: ALDP mRNA was most abundant in embryonic brain and gradually decreased during maturation; ALDRP and P70R mRNA accumulated in the early postnatal period; and the amount of PMP70 transcript increased slightly during the second and third postnatal week. The different expression patterns could explain why beta-oxidation is defective in X-ALD, although ALDRP and PMP70 can replace ALDP functionally in fibroblasts. Dietary fenofibrate had no effect on the ALD and P70R genes, but strongly increased expression of the ALDR and PMP70 genes in mouse liver. However, in P-glycoprotein Mdr1a-deficient mice fenofibrate treatment increased ALDR gene expression also in the brain, suggesting that the multidrug-transporter P-glycoprotein restricts entry of fenofibrate to the brain at the blood-brain barrier. Analysis of the promoter sequences revealed a cryptic nuclear hormone receptor response element of the DR+4 type in the ALDR promoter and a novel 18-bp sequence motif present only in the 5' flanking DNA of the ALDR and PMP70 genes. The mouse ALDR gene uses a single transcription start site but alternative polyadenylation sites. These data are of importance for the use of ALDP-deficient mice as a model in pharmacological gene therapy studies.
The 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70) is a member of a family of half-ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins located in the human peroxisomal membrane. Other members include the PMP70-related peroxisomal membrane protein, the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), and the adrenoleukodystrophy-related protein. The functions of ABC transporters in the peroxisomal membrane are poorly understood. Evidence from yeast and human mutants suggests that they are involved in the peroxisomal import of fatty acids and/or fatty acyl-CoAs into the organelle. We report the cloning and characterization of the human PMP70 structural gene (gene symbol: PXMP1) localized on human chromosome 1p21-p22. PXMP1 is approximately 65 kb in length, contains 23 exons, and is quite different in structure from the gene (ALD) that encodes the related protein, ALDP. We also analyzed the 5' flanking region of the human PXMP1 gene and the corresponding region of murine Pxmp-1. Both promoters have features of housekeeping genes, including a high GC content and multiple consensus Sp1 binding sequences. In more than 3 kb of Pxmp-1 5' flanking sequence we did not identify a consensus peroxisomal proliferator responsive element.
We report here on the chromosomal mapping of the adrenoleukodystrophy-related (ALDR) gene on both the human and the mouse genomes. This gene encodes a peroxisomal ATP binding cassette transporter, closely related to the transporter identified as responsible for the adrenoleukodystrophy phenotype. ALDR maps on the syntenic region on murine and human autosomes. In addition, we could determine its position in relation to known microsatellite framework markers; this will allow to test its role in Zellweger syndrome and/ or related peroxisomal disorders.
The cerebro-hepato-renal syndrome of Zellweger is a fatal inherited disease caused by deficient import of peroxisomal matrix proteins. The pathogenic mechanisms leading to extreme hypotonia, severe mental retardation and early death are unknown. We generated a Zellweger animal model through inactivation of the murine Pxr1 gene (formally known as Pex5) that encodes the import receptor for most peroxisomal matrix proteins. Pxr1-/- mice lacked morphologically identifiable peroxisomes and exhibited the typical biochemical abnormalities of Zellweger patients. They displayed intrauterine growth retardation, were severely hypotonic at birth and died within 72 hours. Analysis of the neocortex revealed impaired neuronal migration and maturation and extensive apoptotic death of neurons.
We have isolated and sequenced a cDNA which encodes 376 amino acids toward the carboxy-terminus, and encompassing the putative nucleotide binding fold, of PMP68 (mouse liver peroxisomal integral membrane protein of 68 kDa) the major integral membrane protein of mouse liver peroxisomes. The protein sequence predicted from this cDNA shows 97.9% amino acid identity to this same region of rat liver PMP70, a member of the ATP-binding cassette protein superfamily (K. Kamijo, S. Taketani, S. Yokota, T. Osumi, and T. Hashimoto, 1990, J. Biol. Chem. 265, 4534-4540). The section of the cDNA encoding the hydrophilic and putative cytoplasmic domain of PMP68 was expressed as a recombinant fusion protein in bacteria. Two monoclonal antibodies raised against this protein have been epitope-mapped to peptides generated by cyanogen bromide cleavage of the fusion protein. Antibody 1A4 recognizes a peptide whose sequence contains the first motif of the putative nucleotide binding fold of PMP68, and antibody 8F11 recognizes a carboxy-terminal peptide which includes the second motif of this nucleotide binding fold. These antibodies are expected to be useful in the elucidation of the biological function of this putative membrane transporter.
Gene segments encoding the 70 and 22-kDa peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMP) have been characterized in mice and compared with other peroxisomal proteins in terms of evolution and expression. The mouse PMP22 gene sequence predicts A16G and I136V substitutions that agree with those defined by cyanogen bromide cleavage analysis, providing additional evidence that this gene encodes the major 22-kDa membrane protein visualized by SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Mammalian PMP22 genes exhibit high evolutionary rates (0.17% amino acid substitution per million years) than PMP35 (0.14%), PMP70 (0.07%), or catalase genes (0.13%). PMP70 gene regions are conserved throughout vertebrate phylas based on Southern analysis, while PMP22 sequences were only detected in rodents. Amino acid substitutions are clustered in both PMP22 and PMP70 genes, and their pattern supports membrane topologies derived from hydropathy profiles. Northern blot analysis identifies single mRNAs of 4.6 kb (PMP70), 1.4 kb (PMP22), and 2.3 kb (catalase) in several rodent tissues. Quantitative or competitive RT-PCR assays detected two- to three-fold greater numbers of catalase mRNA molecules relative to PMP mRNA molecules in brain, liver, and kidney; PMP22 and PMP35 mRNAs were two-fold more abundant than PMP70 mRNA in these tissues. Steady-state levels of PMP22 mRNA were highest in rodent liver kidney, spinal cord, and duodenum with low levels in colon, adrenal, thymus, and spleen. We conclude that PMP genes exhibit independent evolutionary rates and tissue regulation, suggesting that they have unique roles in peroxisome biogenesis and tissue differentiation.
The human and murine chromosomal localization for the gene for the retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein RPE65 was determined. Using interspecific backcross analysis, we mapped Rpe65 to the distal end of mouse chromosome 3. In the human, using a human-hamster hybrid panel, RPE65 was mapped to chromosome 1. By the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization, this localization was refined to 1p31. The mouse and human loci for this potential candidate gene for hereditary retinal disease do not match those of any known disease in mouse or man.
The Ox-44 (CD53) leukocyte antigen contributes to the transduction of CD2-generated signals in T cells and natural killer (NK) cells and has been suggested to play a role in growth regulation. The gene encoding this protein was assigned to the midportion of mouse chromosome 3 by interspecific backcross mapping and to human chromosome region 1p21-->p13.3 and rat chromosome region 2q34-->q41 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Comparative mapping data presented in this report demonstrate conservation of synteny within the region encompassing this gene in mouse (Cd53), human (CD53), and rat (CD53).
The 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (PXMP1) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family. In humans, mutations in this gene may be responsible for a subset of patients with Zellweger syndrome, a lethal inborn error of peroxisome assembly. The PXMP1 gene was assigned to human chromosome 1p21-p22 by in situ hybridization and its murine homologue (Pxmp-1) to chromosome 3 by interspecific backcross analysis.